In Tanzania, poverty levels have dropped from 60% in 2007 to 47% in 2016. However, 12 million people live in extreme poverty, earning less than US$0.60 per day. While Tanzania is close to the African regional average in terms of health and education statistics, it diverges significantly from the rest of the region on some measures.
Although HIV testing, care and treatment coverage have been improving in Sub-Saharan Africa (UNAIDS) 2012), significant numbers of HIV-positive individuals still drop out of HIV care at various stages along the care continuum. One approach to improving HIV and AIDS services along this continuum is to integrate them with other health services.
3ie systematic review 33, 2017
Ethiopia’s Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP) is a large-scale social protection intervention aimed at improving food security and stabilizing asset levels. The PSNP contains a mix of public works employment and unconditional transfers. It is a well-targeted program; however, it took several years before payment levels reached intended amounts.
According to the World Health Organization, diarrhoeal disease is the second leading cause of death among children under the age of five. Contaminated water is often to blame. Chlorine dispensers installed next to communal water sources are cost-effective means of providing access to safe water treatment. But people have to use the dispensers to treat the water they’ve just drawn. There is limited evidence on what works in expanding the use of chlorine dispensers in cost-effective and sustainable ways.
Over one-third of the 2.5 billion people worldwide who do not have access to improved sanitation live in India. Nearly 69 per cent of the population practise open defecation. Typically, the government of India’s national sanitation schemes have focused on building more latrines for reducing open defecation, health-related illness and child malnutrition.
Objectives Substantial progress has been made in improving immunisation coverage for at least the routine vaccines across the world.
The proportion of the world’s children who receive recommended vaccines, in other words, global vaccination coverage , has remained steady for the past few years . It is estimated that immunisation currently averts at least two to three million deaths every year. However , it is also clear that in some parts of the world, immunisation coverage rates are stagnating or, even worse, declining.
The Schooling, Income and Health Risk (SIHR) study was designed to evaluate the impacts of the cash transfer programme on a variety of outcomes ranging from education to health to sexual behaviour.
The question whether behavioural conditions, such as vaccinating children or sending them to school, should be attached to cash transfers remains a highly debated policy topic.
Howard White, Shagun Sabarwal and Thomas de Hoop