a. Context and first responses
The Ketsana Typhoon entered the southern part of the Lao PDR on September 29, 2009, causing extensive damages to people's propriety, social and physical infrastructure and to the area's productive capacity. The country's five southern provinces: Attapeu, Xekong, Salavan, Savannakhet and Champassak were affected to various degrees, with Champasak being less affected than the other provinces, especially Attapeu and Xekong. Laos is among the four countries that have been affected by Typhoon Ketsana.