A magnitude 5.9 earthquake struck Haiti on 6 October, and was followed by a magnitude 5.2 aftershock on 7 October and a magnitude 4.2 aftershock on 8 October. The departments affected by seismic activity were Artibonite, North and North-West. So far, 17 people have died and at least 421 have been injured. The earthquakes destroyed 353 houses and damaged 7,430. An estimated 31,132 people were affected, although needs assessments are still being completed.
Heavy rains that started on 4 October in Honduras have caused flooding and landslides across the country. Most damage has been reported in Francisco Morazán, Valle, and Choluteca departments, where a red alert was issued by the government. 12,076 people have been affected by the floods. 963 homes were damaged, including 169 flooded, and nine completely destroyed. Among them, 7,234 people have been evacuated, and 6,789 moved to 78 temporary shelters.
Anticipated scope and scale
Several earthquakes struck Central Sulawesi province from 28–29 September. The strongest had a magnitude of 7.5 and triggered a tsunami that hit land at a speed of 800km per hour with waves of up to 6m. Land liquefaction caused by the earthquake also had serious humanitarian consequences as the fate of two villages with approximately 5,000 residents remains uncertain. At least 74,000 people have been displaced and 2,010 people have died, and these numbers continue to rise. At least 616,000 people have been affected.
More than 28,000 people fled conflict in Badghis, Ghazni, Paktika, Kunar, Kabul, Kapsia and Takhar provinces between 1 and 7 October.
Taliban-led attacks were reported in Wardak, Jowzjan and Ghazni provinces, leading to casualties and damage to infrastructure.
Military operations have intensified in the lead-up to the parliamentary elections on 20 October and violence continues to disrupt civilian life and humanitarian access in the conflict and drought affected country.
Over 15,000 Eritreans crossed into Ethiopia as of 26 September after two border crossing points were opened, with many traveling to refugee settlements. It brings the total number of Eritrean refugees in the Tigray region to almost 46,000 people.
Humanitarian assistance needs to be scaled up in the region to respond to this new influx of refugees.
Since the publication of ACAPS Nigeria Floods Update I Briefing Note on 26 September, rains have continued although Niger and Benue river levels have dropped slightly. As of 26 September the flooding of the Niger and Benue rivers is affecting 826,400 people and displacing 176,300 people across 12 states. Assessments are ongoing, and numbers are likely to increase (NEMA 26/09/2018; 24/09/2018). Since 26 September, some 200 deaths and 1,035 injuries have been reported. Assessments indicate that around 17,800 homes were damaged or destroyed across all affected states as of late August.
Several earthquakes struck Central Sulawesi province from 28–29 September. The strongest earthquake had a magnitude of 7.5 and triggered a tsunami that hit land at a speed of 800 kph with waves of up to 6m. Around 48,000 people have been displaced and 1,200 people killed, with these numbers expected to continue rising rapidly. At least, 300,000 people were exposed to category 5-8 shaking, while up to 1.5 million people who live in the area may be affected.
Since the publication of ACAPS Nigeria Floods Briefing Note on 21 September, river levels in most of the 12 affected states remain high due to flooding, which has affected 441,251 people, and displaced 141,369 people between late August and 24 September. A total of 108 deaths and 192 injuries have been reported as of late August. Rainfall is expected to continue for the next week.
Ebola response activities were temporarily suspended in the city of Beni (Nord-Kivu) after an attack by the ADF that killed 14 civilians on 22 September.
A general strike was declared two days later to protest insecurity in Beni, where violent clashes have **forced 40% of the population to flee **over the last six months.
Heavy rainfall has caused the Niger and Benue rivers to overflow, displacing thousands across 12 states as of late August (DG ECHO 16/09/2018; 21/09/2018). The National Emergency Management Agency has declared an emergency in Kogi, Niger, Delta and Anambra states, and is monitoring eight other states in central and southern Nigeria (Floodlist 19/09/2018). In addition to river flooding, flash floods have occurred in central and northern Nigeria since July, affecting Katsina, Kano, Jigawa and Sokoto states.
Just weeks before the presidential election scheduled for 7 October, thousands of people have begun to flee the Southwest and Northwest regions, fearing an escalation of violence as clashes between secessionists and the army intensify. The anglophone crisis in Cameroon has deteriorated this year, with armed secessionist groups and Cameroonian armed forces both perpetrating brutal attacks and human rights violations.
Typhoon Mangkhut made landfall on Luzon island in the northern Philippines on 15 September, affecting more than 890,000 people in Ilocos region, Cagayan Valley, Central Luzon, National Capital Region (NCR) as well as Calabarzon, Mimaropa and Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR).
As of 18 September, 236,133 people are displaced, of whom 162,472 are staying in evacuation centres while 73,661 are staying outside evacuation centres (DSWD 18/09/2018).
The storm killed at least 65 people and damaged at least 1,477 houses (DSWD 18/09/2018).
Thousands of people are fleeing the anglophone regions by bus, fearing escalating violence ahead of the 7 October election. Local authorities are tightening border controls while secessionists try to block access to/from the region.
The anglophone crisis continues to raise protection concerns, as secessionists and armed forces increasingly target civilians, with 400 civilian fatalities recorded in the past year alone.
Since mid-September, conflict has escalated between the Afghan National Defence and Security Forces and the Taliban in Sar-e-Pul, Jawzjan and Balkh provinces. Parliamentary elections will be held on 20 October and violence will likely continue in the runup to the vote. An unknown number of people have been displaced in the affected provinces.
An outbreak of cholera declared on 6 September has killed at least 30 people and infected at least 5,460. The most severely affected areas are the two epicentres of the outbreaks in the suburbs of Glenview and Budiriro in western Harare. The outbreak has spread from Harare to Chitungwiza, and west to Gokwe and Bulawayo. Cholera is reportedly spreading to different areas of the country. Poor WASH and health infrastructure are facilitating the rapid spread of the disease.
As of 15 September 2018, between than 4,200 and 5,000 people of Naria Upazila have become homeless due to the erosion on the Padma river. There is severe erosion in at least 10 points covering 7 kilometers on the banks of the Padma in Shariatpur district including Naria Pourashava, Kedarpur Union, Moktarer Char Union, Nawa Para Union, Charatra Union and Gharisara union (BDNews24 10/09/2018). In addition to homes, all of the roads, bridges, culverts, and other critical infrastructure in the areas have submerged in the river.
On 29 August, damage to Swar Chaung dam in Myanmar’s Bago Region led to flooding across four townships: Yedashe, Taungoo, Oktwin and Kyaut Gyi. Flooding affected at least 85 villages and by 7 September, some 78,500 people from the four townships had to leave their homes. Hundreds of houses were damaged or destroyed, and more than 60,000 acres of farmland were flooded. As of 6 September, flooding had led to the closure of 325 schools, as infrastructure and materials were damaged.
Manam Volcano, on an island off the coast of Madang province in northern Papua New Guinea, erupted early in the morning of 25 August. Lava and ash are affecting nine of 13 villages on the island, which has a population of about 7,000 people. As of 28 August, two of these villages, Dangale (239 people) and Kolang (143 people), have been evacuated to unaffected locations on the island.
The deepening political and socio-economic crisis in Venezuela has led to one of the biggest mass displacements in the history of South America. Although no consolidated figure for the region is available, all sources indicate that migration from Venezuela to neighbouring countries is drastically increasing. 117,300 Venezuelans filed asylum claims in the first half of 2018 alone, already more than the number of asylum claims reported at the end of 2017 (113,438).
Intercommunal conflict in the Somali and Oromia border regions that escalated on 4 August has led to the internal displacement of more than 141,000 people. Shelter and health assistance are among the most urgent needs for the IDPs. The areas most affected by the conflict are Jijiga in Somali region and East Hararghe area in Oromia, where fatalities among the population were reported. With the exception of a reported influx of around 2,000 displaced people into Mekelle Town of Tigray region, there is no other information regarding the impact of the August events on Tigray.