This report seeks to address the question
"what happens to protagonists for change once that change has been achieved?"
by analysing the transformations of peace/human rights civil society organisations
(CSOs) during peace processes and democratic transitions in South Africa
This is a theoretical discussion drawing
from a diverse body of literature from political theory, philosophy, and
the social sciences, to the work of peace and conflict studies and practitioners
of reconciliation and conflict management.
This paper examines the driving factors and transitional stages of conflict transformation in protracted social conflicts, from social dynamics that address difference through violence to a system for the peaceful management of diversity, in order to generate more accurately focused criteria for the design, timing and nature of peacemaking and peacebuilding interventions.
This study is an initial attempt to present
the promising systemic approach to conflict transformation. It draws on
our own experience with this approach as well as on a comprehensive review
of the relevant research and on dialogue with many colleagues involved
in the theory and practice of conflict management.
The article argues that the demand for local ownership in externally funded conflict transformation projects is counterproductive, if it is seen as a concrete project objective. Nevertheless, the demand has an important function as policy ideal, pointing to the necessity for change in present international cooperation. Instead of aiming towards the impossible goal of literal "local ownership"of a foreign-funded project, which by definition inscribes the roles of donor and beneficiary, the focus should be on the nature of the relationship between the donors and the beneficiaries.
Summary of the Two Studies
Causes and Dynamics of the Conflict
The protracted conflict in Sudan reflects the long standing economic disparities, political exclusion and social and cultural deprivation in the distribution of political and economic power between the centre and the peripheries. The country inherited from colonialism a highly centralized authoritarian governance system and an uneven pattern of regional development.
1. Analysis of the Current Situation
Latent, manifest and violent conflicts have now integrated with the ongoing evolutionary development of the Nepalese societal system thus drastically changing the framework condition of the polity.
The current phase of the Aceh conflict began in 1976 when the Free Aceh Movement, or GAM (Gerakan Aceh Merdeka) was formed by the exiled leader Hasan di Tiro. This was the first time there was a movement demanding Aceh's independence from Indonesia.
Strong interest prevails among practitioners,
donors and evaluators to use and apply Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment
(PCIA ) methodologies. However, many practitioners also find PCIA too complicated
to integrate into their programmes and projects.
Consequently, the Berghof Handbook editorial team has invited experts to reflect on new developments, map the field and critically reflect on approaches and methods as they have been developed or refined.
This study deals with youth in war-to-peace
transitions and the response of international organizations to them. While
youth's relevance for societal transformation is a long-acknowledged fact,
their large numbers and potential roles in conflict have recently caused
organizations to consider them a target group for peace and development
War and persecution cause not only material
harm but also produce extreme psychological suffering for those who must
both live and survive under such circumstances. This statement is selfevident
to the point that one is always surprised by the fact that up until recently
it was not an issue in humanitarian help and in development cooperation
and the basic attitude of international agencies is still quite ambiguous.
Professional opinions vary widely about both what trauma work is and what
it should do.
Discussions of current conflicts often highlight their complexity. These conflicts involve many people, civilian and military, in both direct and indirect ways; they relate to internal, inter-group histories and to external, international interests; they are driven by multiple and competing motivations, some of which are lofty and grand while others are selfish and narrow.
In the last decade of the 20th century
43 countries have been considered as countries emerging from violent conflicts.
Most of them were affected by intra-state wars and civil wars, and an extraordinary
high percentage was located in the African continent.
Executive summary and recommendations
The Sri Lankan peace process is at a crossroads.
The first part of this article analyses the new approaches and structures adopted in the 'crisis prevention' policy-making field. It sketches out the guidelines of the European Commission and the European Council for early warning and early action. It then outlines to what extent first capacities have emerged in this field and how the interaction of very different actors has increased since the mid 1990s. The relevance of a new approach is best put to the test by specific examples.