Open defecation represents a major social and health burden for individuals, families and societies. India alone accounts for approximately 60 per cent of the global population defecating in the open, with the majority residing in rural India. Open defecation spreads diseases such as diarrhoea, schistosomiasis and trachoma and results in stunting and malnutrition of children. It can be dangerous and represent an affront to the dignity of vulnerable groups such as women, adolescent girls, the elderly and individuals with disabilities.
Anna Heard | August 30, 2017
In low- and middle-income countries, sanitation and hygiene promotion programmes aim to promote sanitation and improved hygiene as a means of preventing infectious diseases such as diarrhoea and cholera and to achieve community empowerment and human rights. Achieving sustained and equitable sanitation behaviour change is a major policy objective, and many scientific studies claim to measure improvements in these outcomes and identify how to make programmes more effective. This summary report is based on the first systematic review of that evidence.
In Tanzania, poverty levels have dropped from 60% in 2007 to 47% in 2016. However, 12 million people live in extreme poverty, earning less than US$0.60 per day. While Tanzania is close to the African regional average in terms of health and education statistics, it diverges significantly from the rest of the region on some measures.
Community health workers are key frontline health paraprofessionals who have the potential to enhance the World Health Organization’s Option B+ strategy to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV. By extending the reach of health services into communities facing a shortage of skilled health workers, community health workers may enhance retention in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services, including HIV care and adherence to antiretroviral therapy.
Effective demand creation strategies are needed to increase uptake of HIV testing among men in eastern and southern Africa. The objective of this study was to understand whether providing HIV self-test kits to pregnant women and new mothers could lead to higher rates of HIV testing among their male partners than clinic-based HIV testing.
Although HIV testing, care and treatment coverage have been improving in Sub-Saharan Africa (UNAIDS) 2012), significant numbers of HIV-positive individuals still drop out of HIV care at various stages along the care continuum. One approach to improving HIV and AIDS services along this continuum is to integrate them with other health services.
3ie systematic review 33, 2017
This brief is based on a forthcoming systematic review on Short-term WASH interventions in emergency response: a systematic review, by Yates et al. The review synthesised findings from 106 published and grey literature papers that evaluated 114 WSAH interventions across 39 low- and middleincome countries. The current state of evidence shows that most of the available evidence addresses the question of whether or not these interventions works, but little addresses long-term effectiveness or if the intervention had the intended impacts or not.
3ie Systematic review summary 8, 2017
Ethiopia’s Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP) is a large-scale social protection intervention aimed at improving food security and stabilizing asset levels. The PSNP contains a mix of public works employment and unconditional transfers. It is a well-targeted program; however, it took several years before payment levels reached intended amounts.
3ie’s Humanitarian Assistance Thematic Window (HATW) aims to produce high-quality evidence to help inform policy and programming in the humanitarian sector. 3ie is supporting impact evaluations and synthesising evidence to understand what is effective and efficient in delivering programmes in fragile and conflict-affected contexts, including what can help to improve recovery and build resilience. We are funding studies that use innovative approaches, are gender responsive and equity focused, and adhere to the ethical standards in evaluation research with vulnerable populations.
Anna Heard and Annette N. Brown
For a majority of children globally, the substantial increase in access to primary schooling has not led to a significant improvement in learning. To address this learning gap, numerous programmes are being implemented outside the formal education system to improve children’s literacy.
Jyotsna Puri | May 20, 2016
Humanitarian actors have a responsibility to ensure that assistance is provided in a way that minimizes risks and maximizes benefits to people affected by crisis. However, there are many challenges in evaluating ‘what works’ in addressing the needs of crisis-affected populations, and translating research evidence into practice in complex environments with limited resources.
This study by Gilligan and Roy examines the impacts of two transfer modalities linked to school enrolment on children’s cognitive and non-cognitive development in Karamoja, Uganda. The study finds that, while multiple-micronutrient-fortified food transfers had no significant impact, cash transfers led to a significant increase in cognitive measures of children by about nine percentage points relative to the control group.