The brief summarises the findings of a systematic review of the effectiveness oftwo main approaches to targetting populations in programmes and policies to reduce barriers to accessing WASH services and strategies during the MDGs.The review includes evidence from 11 Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries.
3ie Impact evaluation report 67, 2017
This impact evaluation by Fabregas and colleagues examines the role of information in addressing the constraints smallholder farmers in Kenya face in adopting agricultural inputs. The study provides evidence on the effectiveness of two types of information-delivery methods in influencing farmers’ knowledge and choice of agricultural inputs.
3ie Impact evaluation report 68, 2018
This impact evaluation examines the impact of an empowerment training programme and a financial incentive programme to reduce child marriage and increase girls’ education in rural Bangladesh. The findings show that a relatively inexpensive conditional stipend programme targeted to the families of adolescent girls with a high rate of adolescent marriage is effective in delaying the marriage of those girls and improving rates of school enrolment.
HIV testing of exposed infants by 6–8 weeks of age is critical for preventing early morbidity and mortality among those who are HIV positive. When HIV-positive infants remain undiagnosed, they lose the opportunity to access antiretroviral therapy (ART) immediately. Zimbabwe’s paediatric HIV treatment guidelines recommend testing HIV-exposed infants at or before 6 weeks of age, yet practical implementation of these guidelines varies.
For close to three decades, Ethiopia has been plagued by severe food shortages. Until the early 2000s, Ethiopia’s response to food insecurity primarily involved providing emergency food aid. While the emergency aid helped save lives, it did not increase people’s resilience or help avert food shortages. In 2005, the government launched the Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP) to help chronically poor rural populations create assets and become food self-sufficient.
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 45,000 women died from preventable pregnancy-related complications in India in 2015. Rural women and adolescent girls are the most at risk. Severe shortages of qualified and trained midwives in rural areas is one of the primary reasons behind these deaths. In response, state governments are implementing programmes to encourage women to deliver at medical centres.
Over the last few decades, there have been significant improvements in the health and well-being of women, adolescents and children, however, gains have been uneven and inequalities persist.
Open defecation represents a major social and health burden for individuals, families and societies. India alone accounts for approximately 60 per cent of the global population defecating in the open, with the majority residing in rural India. Open defecation spreads diseases such as diarrhoea, schistosomiasis and trachoma and results in stunting and malnutrition of children. It can be dangerous and represent an affront to the dignity of vulnerable groups such as women, adolescent girls, the elderly and individuals with disabilities.
The Productive Safety Net Program was launched in 2005 to fight chronic food security issues in Ethiopia. The program falls under the work-for-food category where community members receive cash transfers in lieu of working on projects. The study evaluates the impacts of these community programs beyond the beneficiary households, by using the local economy-wide impact evaluation(LEWIE) model.
This study evaluates if the Uddeepan programme in Bihar relaxes labour constraints and improves workers’ abilities, and leads to better maternal knowledge, immunisation rates, availability of take-home rations, enrollment in pre-school centres, and weight-for-age Z scores, a key outcome.
Anna Heard | August 30, 2017
In low- and middle-income countries, sanitation and hygiene promotion programmes aim to promote sanitation and improved hygiene as a means of preventing infectious diseases such as diarrhoea and cholera and to achieve community empowerment and human rights. Achieving sustained and equitable sanitation behaviour change is a major policy objective, and many scientific studies claim to measure improvements in these outcomes and identify how to make programmes more effective. This summary report is based on the first systematic review of that evidence.
In Tanzania, poverty levels have dropped from 60% in 2007 to 47% in 2016. However, 12 million people live in extreme poverty, earning less than US$0.60 per day. While Tanzania is close to the African regional average in terms of health and education statistics, it diverges significantly from the rest of the region on some measures.
Community health workers are key frontline health paraprofessionals who have the potential to enhance the World Health Organization’s Option B+ strategy to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV. By extending the reach of health services into communities facing a shortage of skilled health workers, community health workers may enhance retention in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services, including HIV care and adherence to antiretroviral therapy.
Effective demand creation strategies are needed to increase uptake of HIV testing among men in eastern and southern Africa. The objective of this study was to understand whether providing HIV self-test kits to pregnant women and new mothers could lead to higher rates of HIV testing among their male partners than clinic-based HIV testing.
Although HIV testing, care and treatment coverage have been improving in Sub-Saharan Africa (UNAIDS) 2012), significant numbers of HIV-positive individuals still drop out of HIV care at various stages along the care continuum. One approach to improving HIV and AIDS services along this continuum is to integrate them with other health services.