This report was commissioned by the World
Food Programme (WFP) in response to a recommendation by the SENAC project
(Strengthening Needs Assessment Capacity in WFP) to review analytical methods
and assessment tools pertaining to the effects of food aid on dependency
and induced migration.
The year 2005 has seen an unprecedented appetite for dialogue on reform of the international peace, security and aid architecture, reaching a peak around the World Summit in September 2005. This has included both UN/IASC- and donor-led initiatives. Although conceived independently of each other, these processes are linked by a common concern with improving the timeliness, appropriateness and equity of crisis response.
This report proposes five steps to improve
the global response to internal displacement. If taken, these steps would
build ownership of IDPs by host governments and foreign donors, implement
rules and standards governing the response, reform the response of the
United Nations and the United States, and create a permanent advocacy constituency
- Sovereignty as the "Responsibility to Protect" in IDP crises
- Guiding principles on Internal Displacement
Few doubt that there is currently a humanitarian crisis in Niger. But the scale and severity of the crisis, the point at which it turned 'critical' and the question of whether there is a current or imminent famine remain disputed.
In many emergency contexts, aid agencies
hesitate to provide food and other aid for extended periods because of
fears that this may create 'dependency'. Concerns about dependency are
about more than semantics: they can influence decisions about levels of
assistance, and affect the type of assistance people receive, where and
when. This report provides a critical analysis of the meaning of the concept,
how it is used and the implications this has for how relief is provided.
Humanitarian relief is worth as much as
$10 billion annually, funded and delivered through a mosaic of donor organisations,
bilateral and multilateral agencies, NGOs, Red Cross movement agencies,
private contractors and military forces. These actors operate according
to various norms and guidelines, but there is also a significant diversity
in approach, and in the degree of coherence between them. Each tier of
this relief chain creates risks of mismanagement, diversion and corruption,
potentially reducing the assistance that reaches people in need.
Researched, written and published by the Humanitarian Policy Group at ODI
This discussion paper attempts to answer to
the following question: when does it make sense to give people cash or
vouchers in emergencies, rather than in-kind assistance? To this purpose,
it looks at the following issues:
- The impact of recent cash and voucher projects;
- How decisions about whether cash is appropriate in particular contexts are made;
- What the barriers to the adoption of cash-based approaches are.