As cash transfer programmes increasingly become a standard component of humanitarian responses, aid agencies and donors seek a more comprehensive understanding of delivery mechanisms that are effective, efficient, and offer good value for money, while meeting the preferences of affected people. This research project looks at how recipients of humanitarian cash transfers – including forcibly displaced people – experience cash assistance in different forms and combinations, particularly where these make use of digital delivery mechanisms.
Whilst older people have special needs, they also have unique skills, experiences and roles within their families, communities and societies. These roles continue to a certain extent during droughts, though household burdens may increase as younger adults have migrated or are grazing livestock further away.
Rich countries are violating international norms on refugee protection and asylum, both in spirit and in practice, causing an erosion of refugee protection worldwide that risks overturning the international refugee regime.
Restrictive refugee policies in contexts such as Australia and Europe are creating ‘ripple effects’, fostering negative developments in lower-income countries such as Indonesia, Kenya and Jordan.
This paper explores the role of the private sector in humanitarian action in Kenya. Kenya was selected as a case study because it has a vibrant and innovative private sector, a history of severe and repeated humanitarian crises, notably drought in the country’s arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs), and a track record of public–private partnerships for humanitarian action that have exploited new technologies and experimented with new models of fundraising.
Pastoral areas in the Horn of Africa are frequently seen as a region of poverty and constant crisis, where repeated rain failures leave millions of people dependent on food aid. The long-term erosion of pastoralists’ resilience is ascribed to various causes: a degraded range, the loss of key grazing lands, increasing population pressure and conflict.
The Heads of States of Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) countries should be congratulated on the pledges to end drought emergencies made at the Nairobi Summit on the Horn of Africa Crisis in September 2011. However, limited progress has been made to implement those pledges, and dryland communities in the Horn of Africa are already faced with the prospect of possible below normal rainfall in the coming months. Thus urgent attention should be paid to speeding up the implementation of country plans and the Declaration particularly on the following issues:
Malnutrition is caused by inadequate dietary intake and disease, which in turn are caused by food insecurity, inadequate care and a poor health environment. In theory, cash transfers in emergency and transitional settings could address most if not all causes of malnutrition. However, attributing changes in nutritional status to interventions, including those using cash transfers, is extremely difficult.
HPG Working Papers, September 2011
Authors: Vicki Metcalfe and Sara Pavanello, with Prafulla Mishra
In recent decades Kenya has seen rapid urbanisation driven by a complex interplay of factors including chronic under-development, political and ethnic violence, climatic hazards, poor land management and limited economic opportunities. In 1999, one-third of the population was estimated to be living in urban settlements. This is expected to rise to 60% by 2030.
Following the famine in Somalia, this virtual issue of Disasters brings together a number of seminal articles on previous famines in the Horn of Africa and elsewhere. The collection includes articles by world class scholars on early warning systems, targeting of emergency food aid, effectiveness of famine response, interface between war and famine, malnutrition, disease and mortality in times of famine and discussion of the definition of 'famine'. It is hoped that this rich literature, spanning almost 30 years, can be of help in informing the current response.
Sara Pavanello, HPG
- Mobile pastoralist systems often cross international borders.
Livestock is the main household asset and a key productive resource for pastoralist communities living in the border areas of Kenya and Ethiopia. However, recurrent droughts are eroding pastoralists' livestock base and weakening their livelihoods and their resilience to climatic shocks. Livestock marketing, understood as the process through which live animals change ownership, is increasingly perceived as critical for improving pastoral household income.
Enabling pastoralist livelihood systems in the Horn of Africa
Sara Pantuliano and Sara Pavanello, HPG
The traditional image of life in tented, sprawling camps no longer tells the full refugee story. As the world urbanises, refugees too are increasingly moving to built up areas - including large towns and cities. Today, almost half of the world's 10.5 million refugees reside in urban areas, with only one-third in camps (UNHCR, 2009). Refugees move to the city in the hope of finding a sense of community, safety and economic independence. However, in reality, what many actually find is harassment, physical assault and poverty.
HPG COMMISSIONED REPORT
HPG Policy Brief 35
Sara Pantuliano and sara Pavanello, HPG
- Drought must be seen as a normal and often predictable event in the Horn of Africa.
The effects of climate change on the drylands of the Horn of Africa pose particular and difficult policy challenges. The arid climate together with the poverty faced by its inhabitants mean that the higher temperatures, intensifying rains and increasingly frequent extreme weather events that climate science projects for the region can only exacerbate the problems of development.
- Current post-election displacement in Kenya is not a new phenomenon but a recurring trend linked to unresolved land grievances, in a context of poor governance and socio-economic insecurity. This is of concern to humanitarians as the failure to understand the dynamics involved and the implications for recovery can exacerbate tensions and jeopardise attempts to resolve the crisis.
- Humanitarians need to engage with land specialists to ensure that their programming not only avoids exacerbating tensions, but is also consistent with efforts to address the …
Yet again, drought has hit the Greater Horn of Africa. The UN estimates that at least 11 million people in Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia are in crisis, making this the region's worst drought in a decade. The impact has been most severe in pastoral areas on the Ethiopia-Kenya-Somalia border, with reports of malnutrition levels far beyond emergency thresholds, (1) livestock losses of up to 70% (2) and the mass migration of pastoralists in search of water, food, jobs and relief aid.