Human rights issues are notoriously controversial. Debates rage around numerous issues, not least the validity and universality of human rights themselves. However, the detention of children for immigration purposes stands out as one human rights issue for which there is a remarkable extent of consensus, in both the damage it causes and the need for action to bring it to an end.
by Arshad Mahmood
The need to protect children in Pakistan has never been greater. With indicators like Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) or child welfare benchmarks set under the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), Pakistan lags far behind in fulfilling our promises to our children. Last year’s floods only added to the already complex challenges of conflict, terrorism, the appalling state of the health and education sectors, and the lack of legislative initiatives. These failures of momentum combine with poor to non-implementation of existing laws.
1. Introduction: The Research
This report is the outcome of an enquiry into the human rights implications of contemporary patterns of social control - how laws, policies and administrative regulations define, construct and respond to people, behaviour or status defined as "undesirable", "dangerous", criminal or socially problematic.
Power, Corruption and Violence: AStructural Perspective
Corruption has been given increased attention in recent years. A taboo subject until the early 1990s, it is recognised today to be one of the biggest obstacles to development. The adoption of the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC), which came into force in 2005, reflects this emerging consensus.
Introduction and Overview
Why examine plural legal orders?
This report is written for human rights advocates and policy-makers who find themselves in contexts where a specific dispute or subject matter is governed by multiple norms, laws or forums that co-exist within a single jurisdiction.
En los últimos 40 años se ha desarrollado una nutrida literatura especializada sobre corrupción. Lo mismo encontramos importantes estudios con análisis económicos y econométricos, que investigaciones que buscan dar cuenta de sus implicaciones como fenómeno social. A la tarea de explicar y comprender la corrupción han acudido especialistas en derecho, antropología, sociología y, una larga lista de disciplinas que no es este el lugar pertinente para enlistar.
Migration policies across the world are driven by three core concerns: law and border enforcement, economic interest, and protection. This report argues that official policies are failing partly because one of these concerns, protection, has been marginalised. Intensified efforts to suppress migration have not deterred people from seeking security or opportunity abroad but drive many into clandestinity, while the promotion of open economic markets has attracted millions of people to centres of prosperity but tolerated widespread exploitation.
This report is written for human rights advocates and policy-makers who find themselves in contexts where a specific dispute or subject matter is governed by multiple norms, laws or forums that co-exist within a single jurisdiction. Plural legal orders occur in numerous circumstances: for example, where different family laws apply to specific ethno-cultural groups, where customary dispute resolution mechanisms operate without state sanction, where non-state legal orders (such as alternative dispute resolution mechanisms) are established.
SCOPE OF THE REPORT
This paper considers current human rights claims in relation to sexual rights, in formal human rights structures and processes. It shows that troublesome but predictable disjunctures continue to constrain the evolution of coherent and progressive policy positions in this area. Given that there is powerful opposition to sexual rights and sexual rights work globally, more coherence is keenly needed.
SCOPE OF THE REPORT
What impact does corruption have on enjoyment of human rights, including economic, social and cultural rights? When can human rights principles and tools help to curb and prevent corruption? In recent years, governments, NGOs and international organisations have taken many initiatives to fight corruption. However, these efforts have rarely been analysed from the point of view of human rights, despite their potential and relevance.
In recent decades, the worldwide human rights movement has seemed to make progress in attempting to create support for its values. More governments have formally incorporated human rights principles into national law, and many countries have held elections that brought more democratic and pluralist regimes into power. This said, civil liberties and the foundations of multilateral co-operation have been set back by recent events. There is deep concern at the emergence of a more polarised and security-driven political environment since the attacks against the United States in September 2001.
Sri Lanka, Sierra Leone, Kosovo, Rwanda,
the Philippines, Chechnya, Somalia, Northern Ireland, Spain. Armed groups
are active in numerous civil conflicts. Considered "terrorists"
by some, and "liberation fighters" by others, there can be no
doubt that such groups have been responsible for serious abuses of human
This report discusses a spectrum of human rights concerns raised by anthropogenic climate change and by the strategies devised to address it. It does not seek to reframe climate change as a "human rights issue" or to buttress the many existing grounds for urgent cuts in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions with human rights rationale.
Have human rights organisations responded adequately to the threat of international terrorism and official responses to that threat?
The International Council on Human Rights
Policy was created ten years ago to deliver relevant and useful ideas in
the field of human rights policy. To reflect its first ten years of activity,
the Council has produced this document, which surveys recent trends in
human rights and, more speculatively, looks forward at some of the large
issues that lie ahead.
The report examines human rights provisions in peace agreements, to shed some light on the role that they have in peace processes more generally. While the focus on peace agreements is somewhat artificial, it provides a clear basis for comparisons between countries. Peace agreements, even if unsuccessful, form at least 'snap-shots' of possible frameworks for moving away from violent conflict.
Since the Universal Declaration on Human
Rights was adopted in 1948, numerous human rights standards have
been created at the initiative of states, non-governmental organisations,
victims, and other actors. These standards have transformed international
Human Rights Standards: Learning from Experience examines the history of human rights standard-setting and the options available to those who advocate for new standards in the future. It considers where new standards are needed, the forms they should take, where they can be negotiated, and what actors should be involved.
National human rights institutions (NHRIs)
are now, beyond a doubt, valued as essential partners in the task of protecting
and promoting human rights at the national and regional levels. This is
reflected, not least, in the resolution adopted in 2005 by the Commission
for Human Rights, inviting NHRIs to participate in all agenda items of
the Commission (resolution 2005/74). There is indeed a significant increase
in the demands made on NHRIs by all stakeholders to act as key actors in
the protection and promotion of human rights.