■ In May 1966 the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (“the FARC”) was established.
■ In August 2016, following four years of negotiations facilitated by Cuba, Norway and Venezuela, a peace accord was signed, and put to a referendum in October 2016.
■ The referendum “No” campaign winning at 50.2%, “Yes” campaign 49.8.
Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) Background
Papua New Guinea's population of 5.6 million is one of the most heterogeneous in the world, with more than 700 indigenous languages spoken by several thousand communities divided by mountainous terrain and sea.1 Approximately 85% of the population relies on semi-subsistence agriculture. Since independence from Australia in 1975, the country has experienced economic stagnation.
Afghanistan has had a turbulent history of conflict for over three decades. After the collapse of the constitutional monarchy led by King Zahir Shah in 1973 and the establishment of a republic by Muhammad Daud, the country fell into the throws of civil strife. A leftist coup that overthrew and killed Daud in 1978 sparked more civil unrest prompting Soviet intervention and the sending of troops.
This report provides an indicators-based assessment of conflict risk in the three Southeast Asian countries of Cambodia, Indonesia and the Philippines. The analysis crosses nine interrelated issue areas identified as underlying potential for conflict development. These areas are: History of Armed Conflict; Governance and Political Instability; Militarization; Population Heterogeneity; Demographic Stress; Economic Performance; Human