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Lake Chad Basin Crisis/Crise du bassin du lac Tchad

Since the formation of Boko Haram in 2002 and its subsequent insurgency into northern Nigeria, leading to the declaration of a state of emergency in the most affected states - Borno, Yobe and Adamawa - in 2013 and increased counter-attacks by a regional coalition force formed in 2015, the group has moved into neighbouring states, recruiting fighters and carrying out attacks. The result has been the displacement of 2.4 million people in the Lake Chad Basin region, which includes parts of Nigeria, Niger, Cameroon and Chad, to create one of the most severe and complex humanitarian emergencies in the world today, as the insecurity amplifies chronic drought, cholera and poverty endemic to the region.

Furthermore, Lake Chad, once one of Africa’s largest lakes, is in distress. Over the last 60 years, the lake’s size has decreased by 90 percent as a result of overuse of the water, extended drought and the impacts of climate change. The surface area of the lake has plummeted from 26,000 square kilometers in 1963 to less than 1,500 square kilometers today. The reduction, which has been called an ecological disaster, has not only destroyed livelihoods but led to the loss of invaluable biodiversity. (UN Environment, 28 Feb 2018)

In 2018, around 10.7 million people need relief assistance to survive. Concerted efforts by humanitarian actors and the Government helped avert the risk of famine in 2017. Food insecurity and malnutrition, nonetheless, remain high in the conflict-hit regions of Cameroon, Chad, Niger and Nigeria. Humanitarian organisations are in 2018 requesting for US$1.6 billion to ease hunger, provide water, shelter, hygiene, healthcare, protection and education and help communities rebuild their lives and livelihoods. (OCHA, 22 Feb 2018)

Crise du bassin du lac Tchad

A la suite de l’apparition de Boko Haram en 2002 et de l’insurrection qui a suivi dans le nord-est du Nigéria, l’état d’urgence a été déclaré en 2013 dans les États les plus touchés de Borno, de Yobe et d’Adamawa. Après une contre-attaque accrue de la coalition armée régionale formée en 2015, le groupe s’est déplacé vers les États voisins, menant des attaques et recrutant des combattants. En conséquence quelque 2,3 millions de personnes ont été déplacées dans la région du Lac Tchad, qui recouvre plusieurs parties du Nigéria, du Niger, du Cameroun et au Tchad. Il s’agit d’une des plus sévères et des plus complexes crises humanitaires dans le monde aujourd’hui, alors que l’insécurité aggrave encore davantage la sécheresse chronique, le choléra, et la pauvreté endémique dans la région.

Par ailleurs le lac Tchad, autrefois l'un des plus grands lacs d'Afrique, est en détresse. Au cours des 60 dernières années, la taille du lac a diminué de 90% en raison de l'utilisation excessive de son eau, de sécheresses prolongées et des effets des changements climatiques. La superficie du lac est passée de 26 000 kilomètres carrés en 1963 à moins de 1 500 kilomètres carrés aujourd'hui. Cette situation a été qualifié de catastrophe écologique : elle a entraîné la disparition des moyens de subsistance des populations ont été détruit et la perte d'une biodiversité inestimable. (ONU Environnement, 28 Feb 2018)

En 2018, 10,8 millions de personnes ont besoin d’aide pour survivre. Les efforts concertés des acteurs humanitaires et des gouvernements ont permis d’éviter la famine en 2017. Cependant l’insécurité alimentaire et la malnutrition restent élevées dans les régions touchées par le conflit au Cameroun, au Tchad, au Niger et au Nigéria. Les organisations humanitaires demandent 1,6 milliard de dollars pour réduire la faim et fournir eau, abris, soins médicaux, protection, hygiène et éducation afin d’aider les communautés à reconstruire leur vie et retrouver leurs moyens d’existence. (OCHA, 22 février 2018)

All Updates on Lake Chad Basin Crisis/Crise du bassin du lac Tchad

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21 Aug 2018 description

Objective: To enhance the resilience of populations affected by food insecurity and malnutrition and minimize the impact of food and nutrition shocks in West Africa.

21 Aug 2018 description

Stephane Dujarric, Spokesman for the Secretary-General

The Secretary-General condemns the killing of dozens of people in violence in Borno State, northeastern Nigeria, on 19 August.

The Secretary-General expresses his deepest condolences to the bereaved families and to the Government and people of Nigeria and wishes a speedy recovery to the injured. He calls for those responsible for the violence to be swiftly brought to justice.

17 Aug 2018 description

After decades of armed conflict, the Lake Chad region remains littered with explosive remnants of war. Humanity & Inclusion (which operates under the name of Handicap International) puts up warning signs around hazardous areas and runs risk education sessions to help protect locals from the dangers of explosive remnants.

Risk education

17 Aug 2018 description

(Dakar, 17 août 2018) – Dans le cadre de la Journée mondiale de l’aide humanitaire, la communauté humanitaire d’Afrique de l’ouest et du centre se réunit ce vendredi à Dakar en solidarité avec les personnes affectées par les crises humanitaires et la violence des conflits de la région. Le Bureau des Nations unies pour la Coordination des affaires humanitaires (OCHA) souligne que plus en plus de civils sont la cible directe ou indirecte d’incidents majeurs et que les humanitaires sont également victimes d’attaques croissantes dans cette partie du monde.

17 Aug 2018 description
report UN Children's Fund

Situation Overview

  • Over 20,000 cholera cases and 255 deaths have been reported as of week 30 in Lake Chad Basin (LCB). This is 8 times more than the average cholera caseload over the past four years.

  • Nigeria is the most affected country with 18,000 cases.
    The outbreak has spread into Cameroon and Niger (on week 27).

  • Major cities of Maradi (Niger), Yaounde and Douala (Cameroon) have confirmed cholera cases.

17 Aug 2018 description
report UN Children's Fund

Highlights

  • 22,512 severely malnourished children were admitted to UNICEF supported health facilities in July, bringing the total to 124,063 for 2018.

  • 10,947 displaced children accessed Child Friendly Spaces and received psychosocial support in regions affected by population movement from CAR in the south and Boko Haram attacks in the west of Chad.

16 Aug 2018 description

POPULATION MOBILITY OVERVIEW

Three major mobility patterns shaped West and Central African flows in the last three months. The first is a pattern of forced internal displacement flows, mainly as a result of the Lake Chad Basin Crisis. The Crisis directly affecting nearly 4 million persons with more than 2.27 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) and 1.49 million returns in Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad and Niger.

15 Aug 2018 description

Maroua, Cameroon, 14 August 2018—A total of 30 municipalities in northern Cameroon, a region badly affected by the activities of the terrorist group Boko Haram, have joined the Global Covenant of Mayors for Climate and Energy, being part of the 9,000 member strong grouping.

13 Aug 2018 description

Un nouveau cadre social pour promouvoir la sécurité alimentaire et les systèmes alimentaires

7 août 2018, Rome - Les guerres civiles et les conflits ont augmenté au cours de la dernière décennie, inversant la tendance qui reflétait une baisse de la faim à travers le monde.

11 Aug 2018 description
report UN Children's Fund

Highlights
- Lake Chad basin: Cholera platform is alerting on the situation (please refer to page 2 and 3).
- Nigeria: seven states affected with main concerns in Zamfara, Katsina and Kano. The situation has improved significantly in Adamawa and Bauchi (few sporadic cases).
- Niger: unprecedented outbreak in the Maradi region with 332 cases on week 30 affected Maradi city.
- Cameroon: three main outbreak in “Nord, littoral & Centre” regions with Douala and Yaoundé at risk.

11 Aug 2018 description
report UN Security Council

CS/13454

Conseil de sécurité
8328e séance – matin

Le Conseil de sécurité a prié, ce matin, le Secrétaire général de soumettre le mandat et les activités du Bureau régional des Nations Unies pour l’Afrique centrale (BRENUAC) à un examen stratégique et de lui présenter des recommandations « sur les points à améliorer » au plus tard le 1er août 2019.

10 Aug 2018 description
report UN Security Council

SC/13454

SECURITY COUNCIL
8328TH MEETING (AM)

The Security Council, noting the Secretary-General’s recommendation that the mandate of the United Nations Regional Office for Central Africa (UNOCA) be extended for another three years from 1 September, requested today that he conduct a strategic review of the Office’s mandate and activities.

10 Aug 2018 description

The gradual improvement of pastoral conditions remains insufficient to significantly impact household food security

Key Messages

10 Aug 2018 description
infographic UN Children's Fund, WASH Cluster

Besoins et cibles

Cible HRP 2018

826 000 personnes dans le besoin

528 000 personnes ciblées

18 814 personnes atteintes

Réponse sectorielle

Eau

  • Progrès nuls vers la cible pour la crise centrafricaine ;

  • 15 250 personnes de plus ont accès à une source améliorée d’eau pour la crise du bassin du Lac Tchad, soit une progression de 5,8 % vers la cible.

Assainissement

09 Aug 2018 description

226,559 Nigerian refugees displaced by the insurgency in Cameroon, Chad and Niger as of 31 July 2018
(or latest figures available)

2,254,213
Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) in the region displaced by the insurgency
(or latest figures available)

HIGHLIGHTS AND OPERATIONAL CONTEXT

09 Aug 2018 description

BOL, Chad – Halima Yakoy Adam was once a human bomb. 

When she was only 15, her husband brought her to an island near border of Nigeria. They were going on a fishing trip, he said.

Instead, he took her to Boko Haram training camp where she was ordered to become a suicide bomber. When she refused, she was threatened with immediate execution.

Along with three other girls, Halima was drugged, strapped to an explosive device, and sent to a crowded market in the western Chadian city of Bol.

08 Aug 2018 description
report REACH Initiative

RESUME

La crise du bassin du Lac Tchad, débutée en 2015 avec les attaques du groupe armé Boko Haram (BH)1, continue de déstabiliser la région du Lac au Tchad et de provoquer d’importants mouvements de populations. En 2015, près de 80 000 personnes avaient déjà dû quitter leurs villages sur les îles du Lac en réponse à l’insécurité. Fin 2017, une triple dynamique était ainsi à l’oeuvre dans la région.

08 Aug 2018 description

On 5 June 2018, a circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) outbreak was confirmed in Sokoto State, Nigeria. From 30 January through 23 May 2018, ten environmental samples collected from two collection sites all tested positive for genetically-related VDPV2 viruses. No associated cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) have been detected with this cVDPV2.