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Lake Chad Basin Crisis/Crise du bassin du lac Tchad

Since the formation of Boko Haram in 2002 and its subsequent insurgency into northern Nigeria, leading to the declaration of a state of emergency in the most affected states - Borno, Yobe and Adamawa - in 2013 and increased counter-attacks by a regional coalition force formed in 2015, the group has moved into neighbouring states, recruiting fighters and carrying out attacks. The result has been the displacement of 2.4 million people in the Lake Chad Basin region, which includes parts of Nigeria, Niger, Cameroon and Chad, to create one of the most severe and complex humanitarian emergencies in the world today, as the insecurity amplifies chronic drought, cholera and poverty endemic to the region.

However, delivering humanitarian assistance has been severely hindered by the volatile security situation and the remoteness of the region. Climate change and resource depletion as the lake’s water surface has shrunk from 25,000 square kilometres in the 1960s to only 2,500 square kilometres today, are compounding the crisis (DFID, 15 Mar 2017).

About 17 million people live in the affected areas, of whom 10.7 million need help. Most of the displaced families are sheltered by communities that are among the poorest and most vulnerable in the world. And with the lean season under way, food insecurity and malnutrition are reaching critical levels. In north-eastern Nigeria, some 5.2 million people are struggling with acute food shortages; in addition, 1.5 million people in Cameroon’s Far North region, 123,000 in Chad and 340,000 in Niger are also acutely food insecure (OCHA, 7 Jul 2017).

The UN is calling for $1.5 billion to address these issues and in February, at a conference in Oslo, 14 donor countries pledged $458 million to help the millions affected across the region this year. Another $214 million was announced for 2018 and beyond. In addition, the UN humanitarian chief, Stephen O’Brien, launched the Nigeria Humanitarian Fund to support emergency response in the northeast, in a bid to enable donors to pool contributions to deliver a more effective and timely response. However, as of July 2017, $1.04 billion in funding needs was still unmet (OCHA, 7 Jul 2017).

A la suite de l’apparition de Boko Haram en 2002 et de l’insurrection qui a suivi dans le nord-est du Nigéria, l’état d’urgence a été déclaré en 2013 dans les États les plus touchés de Borno, de Yobe et d’Adamawa. Après une contre-attaque accrue de la coalition armée régionale formée en 2015, le groupe s’est déplacé vers les États voisins, menant des attaques et recrutant des combattants. En conséquence quelque 2,3 millions de personnes ont été déplacées dans la région du Lac Tchad, qui recouvre plusieurs parties du Nigéria, du Niger, du Cameroun et au Tchad. Il s’agit d’une des plus sévères et des plus complexes crises humanitaires dans le monde aujourd’hui, alors que l’insécurité aggrave encore davantage la sécheresse chronique, le choléra, et la pauvreté endémique dans la région.

Par ailleurs la situation sécuritaire volatile et l’isolement de la région rend l’acheminement de l’aide humanitaire très difficile. Les changements climatiques et l’épuisement des ressources empirent la situation : l’étendue du lac Tchad est passée de 25,000 kilomètres carrés dans les années 60 à seulement 2,500 aujourd’hui (DFID, 15 mars 2017).

Quelque 17 millions de personnes habitent dans les zones touchées, et 10,7 millions d’entre elles ont besoin d’aide. La plupart des familles déplacées ont été accueillies par des communautés qui comptent parmi les plus vulnérables et les plus pauvres au monde. En pleine saison de soudure, l’insécurité alimentaire et la malnutrition atteignent des niveaux critiques. Dans le nord-est du Nigéria, quelque 5,2 millions de personnes font face à de graves manques de nourriture, auxquelles s’ajoutent 1,5 million de personnes dans la région de l’Extrême-Nord au Cameroun, 123 000 au Tchad et 340 000 au Niger qui se trouvent également en situation de crise alimentaire aigue.

L’ONU a lancé un appel de fonds de 1,5 milliard de dollars afin d’affronter cette situation, et lors de la conférence qui s’est tenue à Oslo en février 2017, 14 pays donateurs se sont engagés à verser 458 millions de dollars afin de venir en aide aux millions de personnes touchées par la crise cette année. Pour 2018 et au-delà, 214 millions supplémentaires ont été annoncés. Par ailleurs le chef de l’aide humanitaire à l’ONU, Stephen O’Brien, a lancé le Fonds humanitaire pour le Nigéria afin de soutenir la réponse d’urgence dans le nord-est, avec l’objectif de permettre aux donateurs de mettre leurs contributions en commun pour acheminer une aide rapide et efficace. Cependant, début juillet 2017 le manque de financement s’élevait encore à 1,04 milliard de dollars (OCHA, 7 juillet 2017).

All Updates on Lake Chad Basin Crisis/Crise du bassin du lac Tchad

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23 Nov 2017 description

The fifteenth meeting of the Emergency Committee under the International Health Regulations (2005) (IHR) regarding the international spread of poliovirus was convened by the Director-General on 14 November 2017 at WHO headquarters with members, advisers and invited member states attending via teleconference.

23 Nov 2017 description

"Je tiens à formuler nos sincères remerciements à la Chine pour son soutien à nos activités de Diffa", a déclaré Sory Ouane, Représentant résident du PAM au Niger. "Cette contribution nous aidera à répondre aux besoins alimentaires et nutritionnels urgents de milliers d'hommes, de femmes et d’enfants, pour qui, l'aide alimentaire du PAM est indispensable. "

22 Nov 2017 description

L’insécurité alimentaire restera préoccupante dans le bassin du Lac Tchad malgré l’amélioration des conditions sécuritaires et la disponibilité des récoltes

MESSAGES CLES

21 Nov 2017 description

Just over 200 kilometres north of the Chadian capital, N'Djamena, Lake Chad is one of the oldest lakes in Africa. It supports nearly 30 million people living along its shores in Chad, Cameroon, Nigeria and Niger but also in other neighbouring countries.

However, since the early 1970s, the lake has lost 90 percent of its original surface area to unsustainable water management and climate change. The basin itself has shrunk from 25,000 square kilometres to 2,000 square kilometres.

21 Nov 2017 description

Total of 310, 243 Persons of Concern

FUNDING
(as of 27 October 2017) USD 85.7 M

UNHCR Presence
Staff: 121 national, 37 international Offices: 1 Head Office Niamey; 1 Sub-Office Diffa; 4 Field Offices Abala, Tillabery, Ouallam; 1 Field Unit Agadez

UNHCR Partners
Govt. of Niger, APBE, Adkoul, ACTED / REACH, Care, CISP, COOPI, Handicap International, IRC, OXFAM, Qatar Red Crescent, Search For Common Ground

Context - Background

21 Nov 2017 description

In March 2017 the Food Security Information Network (FSIN)1 sounded the alarm globally to call the attention to a looming famine putting the lives of more than twenty million people at risk across four conflict and drought affected countries: Yemen, Somalia, South Sudan and Northern Nigeria, reaching into the countries around the Lake Chad Basin. Despite consolidated efforts by humanitarian actors to avert famine, the situation in these countries is, according to FAO, still only one step below famine.

21 Nov 2017 description
  • On 20 November, a suspected Boko Haram suicide bombing attack has killed five people and wounded 27 in Kolofata, a village in the Far North Region of Cameroon. This is the ninth bombing attack reported in the region since September.

  • Cameroon is the second country most affected by the Lake Chad crisis. Boko Haram violence has caused the arrival of 90 000 refugees from Nigeria in Cameroon as well as the internal displacement of 219 000 people in the Far North Region. Continued violence hampers access and the delivery of humanitarian assistance.

20 Nov 2017 description

REGIONAL HIGHLIGHTS

  • Food security improves in parts of north-east Nigeria thanks to relief assistance

  • Forty per cent of children under five in Cameroon’s Far North region are struck by chronic malnutrition

  • Malnutrition worsens in Chad. Twelve regions declared to be in nutritional crisis

  • Attacks displace 1,700 in Cameroon’s Far North region

  • Concern over civilian protection after withdrawal of Chadian troops from Niger

20 Nov 2017 description

Background

Around 17 million people live in the affected areas across the four Lake Chad basin countries. More than 2.3 million people remain displaced. Most of the displaced families are sheltered by communities that count among the world’s poorest and most vulnerable. Food insecurity and malnutrition have reached critical levels.

Recent developments

17 Nov 2017 description

Polio this week as of 15 November 2017

  • New on polioeradication.org: Polio infrastructure helping to stop malaria in Nigeria, and Innovations in reverse cold-chain building resilience for disease surveillance in Sudan.

  • Underlining their commitment to a polio-free world for all future generations, Italy has provided €4.5 million to deliver polio vaccines in Afghanistan and Pakistan.

17 Nov 2017 description
report UN Children's Fund

Le 20 novembre, des célébrités et des dirigeants s’uniront aux enfants du Tchad et à l’UNICEF pour donner la parole aux plus défavorisés

Vidéo à télécharger ici

17 Nov 2017 description

Berlin / Abuja - The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) have announced that they will join forces to promote stabilization efforts in the Lake Chad Basin. Under the proposed initiative, titled “Integrated Regional Stabilization of the Lake Chad Basin”, Germany will grant UNDP EUR 6,000,579 million for the implementation of a series of projects aimed at restoring livelihoods and stability to crisis-affected communities.

16 Nov 2017 description

The cholera epidemic declared on 18 September is ongoing in Chad’s Salamat region, where 795 cases and 23 deaths have been reported.

A cholera epidemic in Chad has followed the Bahr-Azoum River along its meandering path southward, from the eastern Sila region to the more heavily populated district of Am Timan, in Salamat, near the Central African Republic.

Many people wash and bathe in the river, and even drink from it.

16 Nov 2017 description

With the main farming season coming to a close in northeastern Nigeria, over 66 000 people affected by conflict are harvesting food – many for the first time in three years – thanks to a €4 million from Germany’s Federal Foreign Office. In many of the targeted districts, FAO provided the sorghum and cowpea seeds with fertilizers alongside food and cash assistance from the World Food Programme, meaning hungry families had an immediate source of food while they planted their crops.

16 Nov 2017 description

Une série de projets vise à restaurer les moyens de subsistance et la stabilité des communautés touchées par la crise.

15 Nov 2017 description

Dakar / Genève (CICR) – La précarité des conditions de sécurité dans la région du Sahel, en Afrique, éclipse une crise humanitaire majeure qui touche 12 millions de personnes dans cinq pays, a indiqué aujourd'hui le Comité international de la Croix-Rouge (CICR).

14 Nov 2017 description

Dakar/Geneva (ICRC) – The precarious security situation in Africa's Sahel region is overshadowing a massive humanitarian crisis affecting 12 million people in five countries, the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) said today.

Armed conflict, trans-national crime and climate hazards are causing immense human suffering, triggering an increase in intra-African displacement and migration toward Europe from the five countries -- Mauritania, Mali, Niger, Burkina Faso and Chad.