Zimbabwe

Consolidated Appeals Process (CAP): Appeal 2006 for Zimbabwe


1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Many of the humanitarian challenges facing Zimbabwe are common to countries in Southern Africa, particularly the "triple threat" of Human Immuno-Deficiency Virus/Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS), food insecurity and declining capacity for basic social service provision, in addition to a large number of orphans and vulnerable children. The humanitarian situation in Zimbabwe is further impacted by economic decline, and formal and informal migration of skilled and unskilled labour, which could be countered by appropriate Government policies. In the 2005-2006 season, at least three million people will require food assistance, as the country has harvested an estimated 600,000 Metric Tonnes (MTs) of maize, compared to its requirement of 1.8 million MTs. While the HIV/AIDS prevalence rate among adults is reported to have dropped to 21.3% in 2005, the disease continues to cause the death of 3,000 Zimbabweans per week. HIV/AIDS has also fuelled a rapid growth in the number of orphans and vulnerable children, which has now reached over 1.3 million. The economic situation, with high inflation rates, shortages in foreign exchange, high unemployment and negative growth, adds to the vulnerability and suffering of the population.

In 2005, the humanitarian situation was further compounded by the Government's Operation Murambatsvina/Restore Order, which targeted what the Government considered to be illegal housing structures and informal businesses. The operation led to rapid growth in the number of displaced and homeless people, combined with loss of livelihoods for those that previously worked in the informal sector. Based on Government estimates that 133,000 households were evicted during the Operation, the Secretary-General's Special Envoy for Human Settlement Issues in Zimbabwe estimate that some 650,000-700,000 people were directly affected through the loss of shelter and/or livelihoods.

The Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) members participating in the Consolidated Appeals Process (CAP) for Zimbabwe project that the humanitarian situation is likely to continue to deteriorate in 2006, particularly due to the steady decline of the economy, which will have an adverse effect for already vulnerable populations. Among the expected developments in 2006 are decreases in the quality and access to basic services; deepening of urban poverty; continued difficulty of people previously employed in the informal sector in re-establishing their livelihoods; continued emigration, both legally and illegally; new farm evictions; and deepening overall vulnerability to natural disasters. In this scenario, participants in the CAP expect that, unless appropriate humanitarian action is taken, the use of negative coping mechanisms will increase, placing vulnerable persons at further risk, deepening poverty and minimising opportunities for long term recovery.

The priority humanitarian actions for 2006 will be to save lives, enhance positive coping mechanisms, mitigate the impact on vulnerable populations, and ensure a comprehensive and co-ordinated humanitarian response. The objectives of this Appeal are to: (i) reduce morbidity and mortality rates; (ii) increase access and quality of basic social services; (iii) prevent the further deterioration of livelihoods and enhance community coping mechanisms; (iv) provide protection for the most vulnerable; and (v) contribute to the prevention, mitigation and provision of care and treatment for HIV/AIDS.

The 2006 Consolidated Appeal aims to: provide food assistance to an estimated 3 million people; provide agricultural and livelihoods support to 1.4 million households; improve access and quality of education services for 93,000 children; provide temporary shelter to 23,000 displaced and homeless households; immunise 5.2 million children against preventable communicable diseases and ensure nutrition and disease surveillance; provide home-based care for 55,000 persons living with HIV/AIDS; provide basic health care, including essential drugs and anti-retroviral drugs to 3.6 million people; assist 600,000 women and children in mother and child health care programmes; target 1.6 million community members in health monitoring and surveillance; reach 4.5 million people with messages to promote behavioural change and prevent HIV; sensitise 1.5 million people on the prevention of Sexual and Gender-Based Violence (SGBV); provide multi-sectoral assistance to 300,000 mobile and vulnerable populations; provide assistance to 96,000 returning deportees; ensure assistance and psychosocial support to over 500,000 orphans and vulnerable children; and to deliver improved water and sanitation services for 2.4 million people. To this end, a total of 46 appealing agencies, including UN organisations, national and international Non-Governmental Organisations, community and faith based organisations, are requesting a total of US$ 276,503,174 to implement programmes and projects as part of the 2006 CAP.


TABLE I. SUMMARY OF REQUIREMENTS BY SECTOR AND BY APPEALING ORGANISATION
Consolidated Appeal for Zimbabwe 2006
Summary of Requirements - by Sector
as of 16 November 2005
http://www.reliefweb.int/fts
Compiled by OCHA on the basis of information provided by the respective appealing organisation.
Sector Name
Original Requirements (US$)
AGRICULTURE
43,930,933
COORDINATION AND SUPPORT SERVICES
2,597,975
ECONOMIC RECOVERY AND INFRASTRUCTURE
5,317,188
EDUCATION
4,540,716
FOOD
111,000,000
HEALTH
39,550,749
MULTI-SECTOR
26,130,849
PROTECTION/HUMAN RIGHTS/RULE OF LAW
8,029,990
SECURITY
100,520
SHELTER AND NON-FOOD ITEMS
20,282,400
WATER AND SANITATION
15,189,854
Grand Total
276,670,374
Consolidated Appeal for Zimbabwe 2006
Summary of Requirements- By Appealing Organisation
as of 16 November 2005
http://www.reliefweb.int/fts
Compiled by OCHA on the basis of information provided by the respective appealing organisation.
Appealing Organisation
Original Requirements (US$)
ACF
1,500,000
Africare
5,578,384
ANPPCAN
124,600
Arise Zimbabwe
308,000
ASAP
168,228
ATP
352,800
CARE INT
650,000
CDES
23,519
Christian Care
2,557,190
CRS
4,177,188
DACHICARE
350,500
DSHZT
1,065,000
FAO
31,122,200
FCT
500,000
HOSPAZ
870,602
ILO
3,450,000
IOM
30,878,300
JJB
33,000
MCI
13,750,000
MDA
2,050,000
Mvuramanzi Trust
813,300
NHZ
53,500
OCHA
2,597,975
ORAP
172,800
OXFAM UK
4,726,647
PCC
52,000
PLAN Zimbabwe
263,800
Practical Action Southern Africa
1,640,000
PUMP AID
565,000
SAFIRE
564,000
SAHRIT
36,000
SC- UK
2,847,830
SCN
305,000
SOS
370,500
UNDP
150,000
UNDSS (previously UNSECOORD)
100,520
UNFPA
1,580,000
UN-HABITAT
1,000,000
UNHCR
2,303,349
UNICEF
23,763,815
UNIFEM
841,600
WFP
111,000,000
WHO
16,937,600
WVZ
4,000,000
ZACH
218,500
ZNCWC
257,127
Grand Total
276,670,374

The list of projects and the figures for their funding requirements in this document are a snapshot as of 16November 2005. For continuously updated information on projects, funding requirements, and contributions to date, visit the Financial Tracking Service (www.reliefweb.int/fts).


2. 2005 IN REVIEW

2.1. HUMANITARIAN RESPONSE IN 2005

The United Nations Inter-Agency Humanitarian and Developmental-Relief Programme for Zimbabwe provided the strategic framework and the action plan for humanitarian and recovery activities during 2005, since an Inter-agency Consolidated Appeal was not produced. This Programme estimated that a total of US$ 74,327,000 would be required for actions in agriculture, coordination, education, health and nutrition, protection and water and sanitation. The Programme's overall goal was to: "Mitigate the impact of social and economic conditions by supporting social protection mechanisms and strengthening livelihoods in highly affected communities". This entailed implementing community safety net programmes for facilitating transition from humanitarian actions to rehabilitation of household livelihood capacity and increased access to basic services.

The specific sector goals, objectives and achievement for 2005 include:

Agriculture: To address household food security, and assist vulnerable populations to become less dependent on food assistance.

  • Agricultural inputs, including seeds, fertilisers and tillage provided to 310,0001 vulnerable households, complementing Government efforts in food security.


Coordination and humanitarian guidance: To implement timely and co-ordinated provision of humanitarian assistance and protection to communities in need.

  • Improved coordination based on reliable quantitative and qualitative information;

  • Consultative meetings with key stakeholders to build concurrence on major priorities;

  • Continued objective joint assessments of humanitarian needs between the humanitarian community and the Government;

  • Training in Sphere Minimum Standards, Humanitarian Principles, Disaster and Emergency Preparedness and Response, including production of District Disaster Manuals. Key Government officials participated in these training sessions.


Education: To ensure that 50,000 vulnerable children, especially girls, have access to minimum standards of education by the end of 2005, working in collaboration with the Government.

  • Procurement and distribution of core textbooks and stationery for up to 20,000 children most affected by urban displacements;

  • Educational support for the 12% of households that care for orphans and other vulnerable children.


Food: To address the food needs of the most vulnerable through targeted food distribution, focusing on nutrition rehabilitation and safety-net community based programmes such as school feeding and HBC.

  • Targeted feeding programmes, which reached 1.3 million vulnerable persons, including orphans, pregnant women with HIV, and AIDS patients;
  • WFP support of 300,000 MTs to compliment 1.2 million MTs of planned imports.


Health and Nutrition: To avert the decline in service delivery and quality and respond to immediate needs.

  • Extended Programme on Immunisation (EPI) and adequate response to cholera outbreaks (5 outbreaks in the Manicaland province);

  • Ongoing training in Emergency Obstetrics Care provided to over 500 health professionals to help reduce maternal mortality;

  • Training of 563 health staff in key posts at the district and health centre levels;

  • Completion of two rounds of the National Nutritional Surveillance System while supporting hospital and community based Therapeutic Feeding programmes.


Protection of the Most Vulnerable: To provide a meaningful protection environment, identify all Orphans and Vulnerable Children (OVCs) and ensure access to basic services for at least 25% of them, as part of the Government-led OVC National Plan of Action. In addition, focus was to provide meaningful protection and multi-sectoral assistance to mobile and vulnerable population. Many different actions supporting OVC at community level were undertaken through civil society organisations.

  • Psycho-social support provided for approximately 150,000 orphans;

  • Training on the prevention of sexual exploitation and abuse for 208 humanitarian workers and staff from United Nations (UN) agencies and implementing partners;

  • Counselling for 93 street children who were placed in institutions, and the reunification of 35 of these with their families;

  • Support to a significant number of mobile and vulnerable populations in different parts of the country;

  • Community support and relief for 334 children with disabilities affected by the emergency will soon be provided.


Water and Sanitation: To reduce morbidity and mortality due to disease outbreaks, alleviate the burden of care of Persons Living With HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and mitigate the adverse effects of HIV/AIDS by improving access to safe domestic water supply and adequate sanitation systems, in rural, peri-urban and urban areas for approximately 7.5 million people, by working with city authorities and rural communities.

  • Rehabilitation of 2,507 boreholes;
  • Construction of 6,982 community latrines;
  • Construction of 2,534 school latrines;
  • Daily transport of 230,000 litres of water to populations affected by urban displacements;
  • Provision of 150 temporary toilets to urban resettlement areas;
  • Hygiene education to populations affected by urban displacement.


2.2. CHANGES IN THE CONTEXT AND HUMANITARIAN SITUATION

The overall political context in Zimbabwe remained generally stable in 2005. However, the economic and social situation continued to deteriorate, thus increasing the level and degree of vulnerability of many Zimbabweans. In September 2005, Parliament ratified the constitutional amendment to Chapter 17, which nationalised all commercial farms and ousted the powers of the courts to entertain any claims by owners of nationalised commercial farms. This has further marred the interest of foreign investors in the Zimbabwean economy.

Between May and July 2005, the Government of Zimbabwe carried out Operation Murambatsvina/Restore Order, which was described as an urban cleanup campaign, and which led to the destruction of thousands of housing structures and informal markets deemed illegal, leaving people without alternative shelter or any means of support. The Operation further exposed the underlying challenges involved with rapid, unplanned urbanisation and the subsequent acute housing problems. The Secretary General's Special Envoy for Human Settlements Issues in Zimbabwe undertook a fact-finding mission in June-July 2005, and concluded, based on Government estimates, that 133,000 housing structures had been destroyed, that the same number of households had been directly affected.

Of those who have lost their homes, the situation is fluid and varied. Many continue living in the open, while others stay in the ruins of their former houses or drift from location to location. Some have been taken in by relatives and friends, often in overcrowded conditions, especially in urban areas. Additionally, some have found alternative rental housing in urban areas, while others have returned to rural areas. In response to Operation Murambatsvina/Restore Order, the Government constructed 5,000 housing units under the Garikai/Hlalani Kuhle programme. However, there will be need for a stronger targeting mechanism, so that those most in need are given first priority.

In recognition of the magnitude of the humanitarian situation created by Operation Murambatsvina/Restore Order, the UN Emergency Relief Coordinator issued a letter to Donor Governments in September 2005 requesting support for the UN Common Response Plan to addressthe needs of the vulnerable affected populations. The Plan requested a total of US$ 29,870,404 to address the various priority needs of an estimated 300,000 vulnerable individuals, between September and December 2005.

Access to affected families remained inadequate and at times inconsistent, especially in the locations where people were evicted. There was sometimes delayed access in the areas with high concentrations of evicted people, such as Caledonia Farm and Hopley Farm. In October 2005, the UN was still negotiating details for the provision of temporary shelter to the most vulnerable people affected, while the services listed below have continued:

  • Provision of blankets and other non-food items to 157,000 individuals;

  • Distribution of 300 MTs of food aid from Consortium for Southern Africa Food Security Emergency (C-SAFE) and 1,450 MTs from World Food Programme (WFP);

  • Provision of 230,000 litres of clean water per day and 42,000 purification tablets;

  • Provision of 150 temporary toilets in 3 camp sites and 500 kilos of lime and 2.5 MTs of soap;

  • Psycho-social support, toys and sleeping material for children in camps and institutions;

  • Delivery of 4,000 plastic sheets;

  • Reproductive health assistance and distribution of 1,070 oral contraceptive cycles, 18,000 male condoms and 150 female condoms;

  • Provision of Home-Based Care to 7,000 chronically ill people;

  • Assistance to 2,500 affected refugees in Tongogara camp.


2.3. LESSONS LEARNED

Overall, good progress was made in the provision of humanitarian assistance during 2005. However, few of the set goals and targets were achieved fully. Humanitarian response, particularly to those affected by Operation Restore Order, remained relatively ad hoc and slow, mainly because of politicisation, lack of resources and challenges related to establishing a coherent and coordinated strategy.

Donor Response

In 2005, significant funding was provided for humanitarian operations and during Operation Murambatsvina/Restore Order, some donors immediately authorised the reallocation of funding from existing programmes. This flexibility facilitated a more rapid response. Financial tracking in 2005, in the absence of an appeal, has recorded only funding without reference to requirements. With the issuance of a Consolidated Appeal for 2006, both will be tracked on www.reliefweb.int/fts.

The Policy Environment

Zimbabwe has adopted many global policy commitments such as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), and has a number of national policies that are progressive. These include the National Plan of Action for OVCs, the HIV/AIDS levy and the National Antiretrovirus (ARV) roll out policy. However, there is a need to strengthen the conversion of these adopted policies into effective programmes. The present situation has shown the need for dialogue with the Government and other key stakeholders in order to create a common understanding on strategies and policies to assist the most vulnerable.

Assessments and data collection

Within the areas of assessments and data collection, significant progress was made in 2005 through the formulation of strategies, targeting and prioritisation. These include the Government-led Zimbabwe Vulnerability Assessment Committee (ZIMVAC), nutritional surveillance and several health assessments jointly conducted with the Government of Zimbabwe. However, there is still room for improvement in the speed with which the information between all the implementers of programmes is disseminated. In order to maximise the use of available data and improve its use by decision makers, it has been recommended to involve all stakeholders at all stages of the assessments; share information with authorities and decision makers; improve technical coordination to facilitate better vulnerability analysis using different data sources; and to improve resource mobilisation to implement programmes based on findings.

Coordination

Coordination among UN Agencies, NGOs, the Red Cross Movement, Donor and Government partners needs significant improvement, particularly in establishing effective information flow and sharing, in order to minimise delays and reduce ad hoc and inadequate responses. To this end, measures should be taken to strengthen geographical coordination at the field level, improve communication between the field and headquarters, and institutionalise weekly and monthly meetings between humanitarian agencies, Government counterparts and the donor community. The current efforts by the UN Humanitarian Coordinator to establish an Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) field office will serve to address the above-identified priorities.

Information Management

Information management needs to be improved through more efficient information sharing between agencies and sectors, especially at the technical level. Agencies also need to make better use of the information available at the community and local levels and ensure that it is consolidated and centralised nationally. Furthermore, disaggregating data by age and gender would improve programme planning and targeting.

Dialogue with the Government

The Government of Zimbabwe recognises the current humanitarian situation to be the result of droughts, and as part of long-term development challenges that the country is effectively working on. The Government has acknowledged that more than 2.9 million people will be in need of food relief in 2005/2006. In this regard, there is a need for the Government, the UN and the humanitarian community as a whole to engage in building a common understanding of the humanitarian situation, the appropriate policies and the modes of collaboration. This will greatly facilitate the response to the needs of vulnerable populations.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

TABLE I. SUMMARY OF REQUIREMENTS BY SECTOR AND BY APPEALING ORGANISATION

2. 2005 IN REVIEW

2.1. HUMANITARIAN RESPONSE IN 2005
2.2. CHANGES IN THE CONTEXT AND HUMANITARIAN SITUATION
2.3. LESSONS LEARNED

3. THE 2006 COMMON HUMANITARIAN ACTION PLAN

3.1. THE CONTEXT

3.2. THE HUMANITARIAN CONSEQUENCES
3.2.1. The Overall Context
3.2.2. The Nature Of Vulnerability
3.2.3. The Capacity for Response

3.3. STRATEGIC PRIORITIES FOR HUMANITARIAN RESPONSE

4. SUMMARY ON STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK FOR HUMANITARIAN RESPONSE

5. RESPONSE PLANS

5.A AGRICULTUR
5.B COORDINATION AND SUPPORT SERVICES
5.C LIVELIHOODS RECOVERY AT HOUSEHOLD AND COMMUNITY LEVELS
5.D EDUCATION
5.E FAMILY SHELTER AND NON-FOOD ITEMS
5.F FOOD
5.G NUTRITION
5.H BASIC HEALTH SERVICES
5.I MULTI-SECTOR
5.J PROTECTION/HUMAN RIGHTS/RULE OF LAW
5.K WATER AND SANITATION
5.L SAFETY AND SECURITY OF STAFF AND OPERATIONS

6. STRATEGIC MONITORING PLAN

7. CRITERIA FOR PRIORITISATON OF PROJECTS

TABLE II. LIST OF PROJECTS BY SECTOR

ANNEX I. ZIMBABWE RED CROSS SOCIETY PLAN OF ACTION 2005

ANNEX II. ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

Project Summary sheets are in a separate volume entitled "Projects"

Note: The full text of this appeal is available on-line in Adobe Acrobat (pdf) format and may also be downloaded in zipped MS Word format.

Volume 1 - Full Original Appeal [pdf* format] [zipped MS Word format]
Volume 2 - Projects [pdf* format] [zipped MS Word format]

* Get the Adobe Acrobat Viewer (free)

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