Yemen is the only country in the Arabian Peninsula that is a signatory to the 1951 Refugee Convention and its 1967 Protocol. UNHCR established operations in Yemen in 1987 and expanded its work in the southern governorates in 1992 in response to the large-scale influx of Somali refugees. Yemen faces major challenges with a high number of refugees, internally displaced persons (IDPs) and mixed migration. Somalis arriving in the country are granted prima facie refugee status, while UNHCR conducts Refugee Status Determination (RSD) for other nationalities. UNHCR also coordinates on protection activities and provides assistance to IDP populations in the Yemen.