Yemen + 4 more

Mixed Migration in the Horn of Africa and in the Arab Peninsula: IOM Regional Office for the East and Horn of Africa (June - December 2017)

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- The International Organization for Migration (IOM) is active in a number of Migrants’ Assistance projects and Human Mobility data collection activities in the Horn of Africa and in the Arab Peninsula and this report aims at providing an overview of the trends observed in the second half of 2017 on the Western route across Yemen, Djibouti, Somalia and Ethiopia.
- Region: 174,654 migrants were tracked between June and December 2017 through the network of 25 flow monitoring points in Yemen (7), Somalia (12) and Djibouti (6). Two main migration trends were observed: one was to reach the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia or other Gulf Countries (46%), the other is the circular movement between Somalia (20.3%) and Kenya (14.1%). Migrant Response Center (MRC) and Migrant Response Point (MRP) data shows that of the 6,080 contacts which were registered across the 8 facilities present in the region, almost 99% were Ethiopians. Regionally, 80% of contacts were male and 20% were female, but with significant differences in the proportion of females across countries (Somalia 32%, Ethiopia and in Djibouti 20%, and Yemen only 11%). Children regionally made up for 20% of the contacts. A total of 3,325 unaccompanied children were tracked during this time, the majority in Djibouti (62%), followed by Yemen (31%) and Somalia (7%). Following the end of the amnesty period for expulsions of irregular migrants from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) on the 15th of November 2017, forced returns spiked 4 folds totalling 54,092.
- Yemen: Over 22.2 million people are in need of humanitarian assistance, and 11.3 million are in acute need of assistance in Yemen. During 2017, migrant arrivals in Yemen reached 99,516 (IOM and UNHCR data), of which 11% were children (9% boys and 2% girls), and 89% were adults (77% males and 13% females). Of the 1,118 vulnerabilities identified, 93% were cases of unaccompanied children. The intended destination of migrants was the KSA for 99.9% of the migrants tracked at flow monitoring points. Most migrants in Yemen reportedly used either land vehicles (41%) or boat (33.5%). According the data collected at MRPs, 96% of contacts were Ethiopians and their intention was to remain in Yemen (42%), move onwards to KSA (31%) or return to Ethiopia (23%). 26% of the contacts were children and 74% were adults. 99% of contacts assisted at MRPs had no documents. Between June and December 2017, 1,483 third country national were evacuated by IOM from Yemen to Somalia and Ethiopia (via Djibouti). Men and boys represented 56% of the population while women and girls 44%. Through a flow monitoring point in Manfed Al Wadeaa at the border with the KSA, IOM recorded a total of 9,563 irregular migrants who were returned, all Yemeni nationals.
- Djibouti: Of the 21,248 migrants tracked through flow monitoring, 14% were children (9.7% the total population were unaccompanied children). Over 97% of the migrants tracked were Ethiopian, or travelling from Ethiopia, and 30% expressed the intention of going to KSA, while 66% expressed their intentions of travelling to Yemen. 96% declared to be migrating for economic reasons, 3.4% due to natural disaster and less than 1% due to conflict. 76% of migrants were travelling on foot. At MRCs, of the 628 contacts assisted, of which over 99% were Ethiopian, 21% were children. 97% intended to go to KSA and only 3% wanted to return home. 90% cited economic reasons as the main driver for migration.
- Somalia: Through flow monitoring, 32,222 migrants were tracked between June and December 2017. Children made for a very high 49% of the migrant population observed (adults 49% and elderly 2%). This is the country with the highest percentage of female migrants (50% females and 50% males). At MRCs, of the 1,812 contacts assisted, 99.9% of contacts were Ethiopians, 59% of which wanted to go to KSA and 34% wanting to stay in Somalia.
- Ethiopia: Of the 1,913 contacts assisted in Semera and Metema 74% were adult males, 18% adult females and 9% were children (4% of which unaccompanied). 86% of contacts wanted to migrate to KSA, 4% wanted to reach Europe, 3% respectively Sudan, Djibouti and remain in Ethiopia. Drivers included economic reasons and poverty (79%) and family reunification (20%). During June – December 2017, 44,182 Ethiopian migrants were returned from KSA and arrived by air to Addis Ababa.