State of Peace and Security in Africa 2016
The State of Peace and Security in Africa (SPSA) is a background document prepared annually for the Tana High-Level Forum on Security in Africa. First published in 2014, it provides a succinct overview and analysis of the most salient conflict trends and offers a nuanced understanding of the efforts and responses that are designed to manage complex peace and security challenges on the continent.
The fourth edition of the SPSA was presented by former President Olusegun Obasanjo at the 6th Tana Forum, held in April 2017 in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. The theme of the Forum was “Natural Resource Governance in Africa”.
The report identified key observations regarding continental-level trends in peace and security in Africa, including the following findings:
A total of 17,539 violent events were recorded in 2016. Libya, Somalia, South Sudan and Nigeria accounted for 33% of these events;
Large scale wars and field battles continued to either stagnate or decline. An increase in non-state conflict actors and violence perpetuated by them has been recorded;
There were 8,050 conflict-related fatalities and 5,098 migrant deaths recorded;
New armed groups and militias were recorded as changing the conflict landscape in Nigeria’s Niger Delta (Niger Delta Avengers) and Eastern DRC (Kamwina Nsapu militia);
There has been a surge in the number of riots and protests with 20% occurring in South Africa and 11.2% in Tunisia;
Countries with the most reported cases of rape and gender-balanced violence in 2016 were Sudan, South Sudan, CAR and DRC;
Measures to contain the activities of violent extremist groups were recorded as achieving strategic results with threats either being neutralized or reduced;
A recorded progress in the use of African-centred solutions (AfSol) in managing armed conflict and insecurity has been observed.