Rights of persons belonging to religious or belief minorities in situations of conflict or insecurity - Report of the Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion or belief (A/HRC/49/44) (Advance Edited Version)


Human Rights Council
Forty-ninth session
28 February–1 April 2022
Agenda item 3 Promotion and protection of all human rights, civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights, including the right to development


In this report, the Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion or belief, Ahmed Shaheed, maps diverse experiences of religious or belief minorities during situations of conflict or insecurity. It explores the specific needs and vulnerabilities experienced by minorities in conflict and examines why and how these vulnerabilities arise through contextual analysis. Evidence gathered for the report questions narratives that overestimate the relationship between religion and conflict and fail to recognize the multiplicity of factors (political, social and economic) that contribute towards violence and insecurity, which overshadow and undermine prospects for peacebuilding. It further challenges prevailing discursive binaries that depict religion as either a source of violence or peacebuilding.1 The report proposes recommendations to protect and promote religious or belief minorities’ rights during crises and to lay the groundwork for inclusive peacebuilding efforts.