This report presents an analysis of 17,628 surveys conducted with mobile populations in the West and Central Africa region between January and June 2018. These surveys are part of IOM DTM's Flow Monitoring activities, which gather information on the numbers and characteristics of travellers observed in high mobility areas of origin, transit and destination. Surveys are conducted at Flow Monitoring Points on a sample of travellers on a daily basis (travellers may or may not be nationals). The purpose of these surveys is to collect more in-depth information on travellers, such as their nationalities, educational and vocational backgrounds, reasons for departure and intended destinations.
The first section of this report presents a regional analysis by intended destinations indicated by the respondents, the second section present an analysis by nationality declared by the respondents.
METHODOLOGY: A Flow Monitoring Point (FMP) collects information on the number, frequency and defining features of individuals transiting a particular location. Prior to the establishment of an FMP, it is essential to identify key migration-prone areas. These locations are identified based on assessments of main migration routes at national and local levels, conducted in partnership with national and local authorities. To date, more than 30 FMPs are active in seven countries of the West and Central Africa region (Burkina Faso, Chad, Guinea, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, and Senegal). FMPs rely on two main tools: The Flow Monitoring Registry (FMR) and the Flow Monitoring Survey (FMS). The FMR includes direct observations at places of entry, transit or exit, as well as interviews with key informants (including transportation workers, housing workers, and migration officials) to assess movement trends, routes, and countries of origin and destination. The FMS entails more detailed individual surveys to profile people on the move, including education levels and skills/employment; drivers of migrations; and needs, risks and vulnerabilities. This document presents an analysis of surveys conducted using the FMS tool. A similar methodology is used in other regions (Horn of Africa and Europe) to allow for comparative analysis of flows and individuals’ characteristics.
LIMITATION: The data presented in this document is representative of surveys conducted with individuals at FMPs in Senegal, Mali, Guinea, Burkina Faso, Nigeria, Niger and Chad during the timeframe indicated. The data should not be generalized and does not represent a full picture of inter and intra-regional migration, but rather a snapshot of migration flows at specific locations. For example, while IOM aims to establish Flow Monitoring Points at locations with high transit flows (based on information from key informants), flows are fluid and FMPs can only provide a partial picture. The monitoring of flows in assessed locations should not lead to assumptions about flows in areas without flow monitoring points. ANALYSIS: Respondents who participated in the survey did not have a uniform profile and exhibited a variety of characteristics. Nevertheless, by focusing on certain indicators, such as country of departure, country of intended destination, or nationality, it is possible to identify different profiles of travellers and to establish a typology of movements observed. Five categories of travel were identified, upon which the comparative analysis presented in the report was based. One category relates to internal travel, while the other four relate to cross-border travel.
1. Domestic Travel: The country of departure and intended final destination of respondents is the same as their country of origin.
2. Migration from country of nationality: Respondents departed from their country of nationality with the intention of travelling to a different country.
3. Migration from another country: Respondents departed from their country of habitual residence (not their country of nationality) with the intention of travelling to a different country that is neither their country of nationality or their country of habitual residence.
4. Return to country of nationality: Respondents departed from a different country to return to their country of nationality.
5. Other: Cross-border travel that does not correspond to any of the above categories.
In addition to categorizing travellers by type of travel, this report also provides an analysis of populations on the move on the basis of their final intended destinations, looking more specifically at final destination countries in EUROPE, NORTH AFRICA and WEST & CENTRAL AFRICA. This report first presents an overview of travellers surveyed in the region, to provide a general idea of respondents’ nationalities and motivations for travel. It then presents a detailed analysis of the top nationalities surveyed and provides additional information on their socio-demographic characteristics.
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