About this report: DTM in the Mediterranean and beyond
While populations from the Middle East, South East Asia, and Africa have been crossing the Mediterranean to reach Europe in growing numbers since 2011, 2015 marked the sharpest increase arrivals to Europe and deaths in the Mediterranean. International organizations and EU policy makers recognized the urgent need to identify effective measures to tackle the resulting humanitarian issues, but at the start of the crisis, relatively little was known about migrants arriving to Europe beyond their nationality, sex, and age. Thus, IOM rolled out its Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM) across the affected region. DTM is a suite of tools and methodologies designed to track and analyse human mobility in different displacement contexts, in a continuous manner. Through DTM’s flow monitoring system, over the course of 2015 IOM identified key locations along the migratory route to collect data through direct observation, consultations with relevant national authorities, and surveys with migrants. The transit point assessments provide information on numbers of migrants, countries of origin, demographics, routes, and transport, using data provided by ministries of interior, coast guards, police forces, and other relevant national authorities. The flow monitoring surveys provide more in-depth information on specific vulnerabilities, socioeconomic circumstances, routes, reasons for movement, and country of intended destination. IOM field staff started conducting these interviews in October, starting in Croatia and also covering Greece, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (fYROM), and Slovenia. As of 31 December 2015 IOM had interviewed over 1,673 migrants and asylum seekers.
These activities allow IOM to systematically gather detailed information about migrants’ backgrounds, motivations, and the migratory routes, and to share ongoing analyses of migratory trends and patterns with humanitarian actors and policy makers. Such information is key to devising appropriate and effective measures to manage migration, including protection for those who are entitled to it, possible integration for those who can stay in the EU and more sustainable return and reintegration to the countries of origin. This report is an overview of the year, based on IOM’s weekly flows compilations.