November saw major escalations in conflict in the Middle East, particularly in Aleppo, Syria, and Mosul,
Iraq, where armed violence intensified, causing significant new displacement. As winter sets in, people on the move face deepening vulnerabilities, particularly those attempting to cross ever-tightening borders both into and out of Syria, such as at Rajm Slebi, where deaths due to exposure to the cold were reported, and the Jordanian-Syrian berm, where cases of hypothermia are expected to increase. Violence also affected Syrian, Afghan and Iraqi refugees and other migrants seeking safety in Europe, with a number of incidents reported in November, including a violent protests at Harmanli camp in Bulgaria, and a fire at Moria camp on Lesbos.
As conditions in Europe worsen for many refugees and other migrants, both voluntary and forced returns to the Middle East continued to increase in November. IOM reported major growth in the number of assisted returns in November, while over 1,100 people have been deported under the EU-Turkey Agreement since April, a 25% increase on October figures.
The following sections of this report describe monthly developments related to mixed migration by country, including reported arrivals, departures, internal displacement relevant to cross-border movement and discussion of relevant policy changes.