Le Secrétaire général appelle les dirigeants à s’engager pour un multilatéralisme inclusif pour mieux prévenir les conflits

Report
from UN Secretary-General
Published on 06 Dec 2018 View Original

SG/SM/19394-SC/13610
6 DÉCEMBRE 2018

On trouvera, ci-après, le texte de l’allocution du Secrétaire général de l’ONU, M. António Guterres, au Conseil de sécurité lors du débat sur la coopération entre l’Organisation des Nations Unies et les organisations régionales et sous-régionales: Le rôle des États, des accords régionaux et de l’Organisation des Nations Unies dans la prévention et la résolution des conflits, à New York, aujourd’hui:

À la suite du débat d’hier je remercie encore une fois la Côte d’Ivoire d’avoir proposé le présent débat public sur le rôle des États, les mécanismes régionaux et les Nations Unies dans la prévention des conflits.

Our world is faced with complex threats that are multidimensional, interconnected and unpredictable. The number of countries experiencing violent conflict is higher than it has been in 30 years. Low intensity conflicts have increased by sixty per cent in the last ten years. We have a responsibility to act – not in isolation, but collectively.

Since assuming office, I have prioritized prevention of all kinds, from conflicts to natural disasters to pandemics and the foreseeable dangers posed by new technology.

There are complex links between these threats, which can reinforce and amplify each other and should not be seen in isolation. I have therefore called on all parts of the United Nations system to focus on prevention, including obviously –as a priority for us- the prevention of conflict.

We are overwhelmingly managing crisis and conflict, when we should put far more effort into preventing them from happening in the first place. Rather than launching humanitarian aid operations to save lives, we should be in a position to invest in reducing the need for aid.

Prevention is, for us, an end in itself. It should never be seen as the instrument of any other political agenda.

First and foremost, it saves lives and protects people from harm.

But prevention also makes economic sense.

The recent UN-World Bank study, Pathways for Peace, concluded that prevention would save some $34 billion in damage in countries that avoid war. These benefits are compounded over time to reach over $140 billion after 15 years.

From greater use of my good offices, including through my Special Representatives and Envoys, to investing in mediation, to strengthening the contribution of peacekeeping and peacebuilding to prevention, we are working to improve our capacity.

The endorsement of the Action for Peacekeeping initiative by 151 Member States is a strong sign of support for the central role of our peacekeepers in preventing conflicts from worsening, and in proactively supporting peace.

Beyond the peace and security pillar, the entire United Nations system is tackling the root causes that can make communities and societies vulnerable to violence and conflict. These often lie in competition over the control of power and resources, inequality and exclusion, unmet aspirations, the marginalization of women, young people and minority groups, poor governance, and the instrumentalization of ethnic and religious divisions. They are interlinked and exacerbated by climate change, migration, transnational crimes and global terrorism.

All our work to achieve the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, from human rights and humanitarian affairs to gender equality, environmental protection and combatting climate change, has a role in preventing conflict.

Sustainable development is an end in itself, and must be considered as such. But it is also one of the most effective tools for prevention. Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals will make a significant contribution to tackling root causes and building lasting peace.

While conflict between states has declined, internal conflicts are increasing and account for the majority of humanitarian needs and displacement around the world.

Strong, resilient societies are enriched, not threatened, by diversity.

But such societies do not come about by chance. As societies become more multi-ethnic and multi-religious, cultural and economic investments in cohesion are vital. Every member, every group, must feel valued.

We must also invest in education and training for young people, so that they have hope and prospects for the future. Young women and men must be empowered to participate in making the decisions that affect their lives. This is a vital goal in itself, but it is also essential to counter the risk of alienation and susceptibility to extremist narratives and even recruitment.

By the same token, we must invest in helping countries and communities that are emerging from conflict. Justice, truth and reconciliation are essential for societies to heal and move beyond war.

The United Nations works to support such efforts in many countries and regions of the world. States, sub-regional and regional organizations are our vital partners in all these efforts, and we are working together with respect and trust.

Our relationship with the African Union is demonstrating the way forward, through our frameworks for enhanced partnership for peace and security, and the implementation of Agenda 2063 and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

I am delighted that the African Union is here to discuss this important issue with us today.

Chapter VIII of the United Nations Charter shows the visionary genius of those who drafted our foundational document. At that time, regional organizations barely existed. Seventy years on, regional and sub-regional organizations are an indispensable part of the rules-based global order. Chapter VIII even envisages our cooperation on joint peacekeeping operations.

Regional and subregional organizations have the proximity, the experience and the knowledge of local dynamics, the flexibility and relationships to engage more rapidly and effectively when situations deteriorate.

In the Gambia two years ago, the coordinated joint action of the African Union, the Economic Community of West African States, the United Nations and neighbouring countries helped to prevent a political crisis and supported a peaceful, democratic political transition.

In Madagascar, the United Nations worked in close coordination with the African Union, the Southern African Development Community and l’Organisation internationale de la Francophonie to facilitate dialogue which contributed to peaceful presidential elections last month, and we hope that this cooperation will be maintained in the near future.

When crises broke out in Mali and the Central African Republic, the Economic Community of West African States and the Economic Community of Central African States were the first to deploy troops and engage in mediation efforts.

The African Union took over the operations, which later became United Nations peacekeeping operations.

In Central Asia, the UN’s Regional Centre for Preventive Diplomacy for Central Asia supports regional dialogue on transboundary water management and promotes water diplomacy, in close cooperation with national governments and the International Fund for Saving the Aral Sea.

And in the aftermath of contested elections in Honduras in November 2017, the United Nations maintained close contacts with the Organization of American States to ease tensions and facilitate dialogue.

These efforts should and must be replicated elsewhere.

C’était là l’objet du dialogue interactif de haut niveau que j’ai organisé en juin avec les chefs de diverses organisations, notamment régionales, en vue d’étudier les voies et moyens de renforcer notre coopération en mettant tout particulièrement l’accent sur la prévention. Je compte poursuivre ce dialogue et intensifier notre collaboration, dans la perspective de contribuer notre expertise et soutien pour asseoir des sociétés stables et résilientes.

Je compte également m’inspirer du succès des cadres conjoints adoptés par les Nations unies et l’Union africaine mais également les mécanismes de coordination d’autres régions du monde.

Les réformes que j’ai engagées nous aideront à améliorer la cohérence de nos efforts. Nous devons notamment aider les organisations régionales et sous-régionales à mieux anticiper les crises et à prendre des mesures de prévention précoces. Le Système d’alerte et de réaction rapide de la Communauté économique des États de l’Afrique de l’Ouest, ECOWARN, est un exemple assez édifiant à cet égard.

Aucun État, ni aucun organisme ne peut relever seul les défis actuels, qu’il s’agisse des changements climatiques ou des inégalités. Je crains donc que les tendances politiques actuelles, le pessimisme ambiant et le manque de confiance risquent de saper le multilatéralisme et le système international fondé sur des règles.

J’exhorte les dirigeants mondiaux à renouveler leur engagement en faveur d’un multilatéralisme inclusif centré sur la Charte mais également axé sur les principes de complémentarité et de subsidiarité. Je les exhorte aussi à se servir du Programme 2030 et des objectifs de développement durable comme plan d’action universel.

La volonté de collaborer et d’agir rapidement doit se traduire par des résultats réels et tangibles. La promotion de la prévention et de la résilience doit être au cœur de nos efforts collectifs.

J’estime que nous avons le savoir-faire et les ressources nécessaires pour réaliser cet objectif; il ne nous manque que le courage et la volonté politique. Nous devons associer tout le monde à l’édification de sociétés stables et résilientes: travailler ensemble avec les équipes dirigeantes, garantir la pleine participation des femmes, et exploiter l’énergie et la créativité des jeunes.

La prévention des conflits est une responsabilité qui nous incombe à tous. Les organisations régionales et sous-régionales jouent un rôle clef dans l’application d’une stratégie globale et multidimensionnelle, à la hauteur du défi que nous devons relever.