CHINA - the world's top greenhouse gas emitter (6.8 billion tonnes annually, 5.5 tonnes per capita) WHAT CHINA IS GIVING
Emissions - China said it will cut its carbon intensity -- the amount of carbon dioxide emitted for each unit of GDP -- by 40 to 45 percent by 2020, compared with 2005.
The domestic voluntary target will still allow emissions of the world's biggest greenhouse gas emitter to grow substantially over the next decade, analysts said.
This is the first measurable curb on national emissions in China. President Hu Jintao has also said China would try to raise the share of non-fossil fuels in primary energy consumption to 15 percent by 2020.
WHAT CHINA WANTS
China said developed nations' targets to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions are not deep enough. It expects average cuts of at least 40 percent from 1990 levels by 2020 and wants a promise of far more aid and green technology. [ID:nL1957409]
China joined poor nations in opposing a proposal by host Denmark on Wednesday to break the talks in to smaller groups to speed negotiations and simplify texts.
UNITED STATES - the world's second largest greenhouse has emitter (6.4 billion tonnes annually, 21.0 tonnes per capita)
WHAT THE UNITED STATES IS GIVING
Emissions - The U.S. promised to cut 2005 emissions by 17 percent by 2020. This amounts to about 3 percent below 1990 levels, the benchmark used in the Kyoto Protocol. The U.S. also said it would extend cuts to 30 percent below 2005 levels by 2025, and 83 percent by 2050. Legislation to cut emissions by 20 percent from 2005 levels is stalled in the full Senate
Finance - Secretary of State Hillary Clinton announced on Thursday the United States is prepared to work with other countries toward a goal of jointly mobilising $100 billion a year by 2020 to address the climate change needs of developing countries.
On Wednesday the United States pledged $1 billion as part of a $3.5 billion scheme as initial financing towards slowing deforestation, a major contributor to climate change. Australia, France, Japan, Norway and Britain are also part of the forest protection plan.
WHAT THE UNITED STATES WANTS
Obama says he wants an accord in Copenhagen that covers all the issues and that has "immediate operational effect.".
On Wednesday U.S. Senator John Kerry warned that if this week's talks fail, chances for the United States approving its own carbon pollution-reduction plan will seriously erode.
Clinton made clear the United States expected China to be fully transparent over its CO2 emissions. "It would be hard to imagine, speaking for the United States, that there could be the legal or financial commitment that I've just announced in the absence of transparency from the second biggest emitter, and now the I guess the first biggest."
EUROPEAN UNION (5.03 billion tonnes, 10.2 tonnes per capita)
WHAT THE EU IS OFFERING
Emissions - EU leaders agreed in December 2008 to cut emissions by 20 percent below 1990 levels by 2020 and by 30 percent if other developed nations follow suit.
Finance - EU leaders have agreed that developing nations will need about 100 billion euros ($147 billion) a year by 2020 to help them curb emissions and adapt to changes such as floods or heatwaves. Last week, they agreed to provide developing countries with 7.3 billion euros ($10.8 billion in initial aid from 2010-12.
Britain and France are part of a $3.5 billion scheme in initial financing towards slowing deforestation (see U.S. section above).
WHAT THE EU WANTS
The EU wants developing nations to curb the rise of their emissions by 15 to 30 percent below a trajectory of "business as usual" by 2020.
RUSSIA (1.7 billion tonnes, 11.9 tonnes per capita)
WHAT RUSSIA IS OFFERING
Emissions - Cut greenhouse gases by 22-25 percent below 1990 levels by 2020. That means a rise from now -- emissions were 34 percent below 1990 levels in 2007.
INDIA (1.4 billion tonnes, 1.2 tonnes per capita)
WHAT INDIA IS OFFERING
Emissions - India aims to cut its carbon intensity by between 20 and 25 percent by 2020, from 2005 levels, Environment Minister Jairam Ramesh said on Dec. 3. India will not set a year when emissions will peak.
WHAT INDIA WANTS
Like China, India wants rich nations to cut emissions by at least 40 percent by 2020 below 1990 levels. But Ramesh signalled room to compromise: "It's a negotiation. We've given a number of 40 percent but one has to be realistic."
JAPAN (1.4 billion tonnes, 11.0 tonnes per capita)
WHAT JAPAN IS OFFERING
Emissions - Japan will cut emissions by 25 percent below 1990 levels by 2020 if Copenhagen agrees an ambitious deal.
Finance - Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama told the United Nations that Tokyo would also step up aid.
On Wednesday Japan said it would raise its support to help developing nations combat global warming to about $15 billion in public and private finance in the three years to 2012.
AFRICAN COUNTRIES (negligible emissions, include some of the countries most hurt by climate change)
WHERE THEY ARE WILLING TO COMPROMISE
On Wednesday the African group of countries scaled back demands for climate finance from rich countries, meeting proposals made by developed nations and signalling agreement on a core obstacle in U.N. talks.
Addressing talks meant to agree a global climate pact, Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles Zenawi supported $100 billion annual funds by 2020 from developed countries to help the developing world fight climate change and adapt to its impact.
WHAT AFRICA WANTS
Many African nations want developed nations to cut greenhouse gas emissions by at least 45 percent below 1990 levels by 2020 as part of a goal of limiting global warming to a maximum of 1.5 Celsius above pre-industrial times.
Note: Greenhouse gas emissions are 2008 data from Germany's Energy industry institute IWR except for the EU, which are from a 2007 submission to United Nations [ID:nLA268743] Population data source: http://www.cia.gov
- Reuters - Thomson Reuters Foundation
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