Chapter 2 of the CCCM (Camp Management and Camp Coordination) case study collection focuses on camp management operations that utilised mobile and area-based CCCM approaches. The seven case studies were collected from five countries: Iraq (2), Afghanistan (2), South Sudan, Somalia, Lebanon. These case studies presented programmes at their early stages of implementation (Afghanistan B.2), programmes that have been ongoing for several years (Iraq B.3 /Somalia B.6), as well as reflections on past experiences (Lebanon B.5 /Iraq B.4).
As displacement trend increased in complexity, becoming more urban and protracted nature, majority of displaced population also have access to wider range of settlement options. Unfortunately, this have not always translated to increased in access to assistance and protection. In order to improve access to information, protection and services, while ensuring representation, CCCM actors have developed context-specific responses to respond to these needs to uphold their basic rights. This commonly result in a combination of mobile teams and Community (Resource) Centres (CRC) that target those in formal and informal sites, collective centres as well as host communities.
Mobile approaches have allowed operations to be as dynamic as the changing displacement context, where informal settlements and collective centres were not large enough to warrant a dedicated on-site Camp Management, and where eviction and relocation may be common occurrence. These mobile teams, composed of CCCM actors and technical specialists, undertook a spectrum of camp management activities including multi-sectorial needs assessments, service mappings and monitoring, facilitating community engagement and setting up community governance structures, as well as engaging and coordinating with local stakeholder.
Specific emphasis was placed on the coordination and communication with the private land owners or “gate keepers” (Somalia B.6) and local authorities, as well as the setting-up and building capacity of community structures and committees. Self-managed communities were encouraged with the CCCM mobile team members’ support. In Lebanon (B.5), specific focus was placed on the capacity building of the local authority to manage the informal sites through a mentorship program component.
Area-based approaches encouraged effective allocation of resources, provide clear access points for displaced population, host communities as well as service providers. The “Urban Displacement Outside of Camps (UDOC)”1 is a CCCM publication exploring how CCCM resources, experiences and expertise can be applied to address the needs of displaced populations living in dispersed settings and within host communities. Iraq (B.3) and Afghanistan (B.1) developed area-based strategies following the UDOC approach.
The strategies developed included Community (Resource) Centers (CRC) that were strategically located in areas that experienced high numbers of displaced people and/or high rate of returnees living interspersed with the host community. This established physical presence within the communities at an easily accessible distance. These CRCs were also places for local engagement, coordinating service delivery as well as provided information, feedback and referrals, between relevant stakeholders. Characteristic for area-based responses, the Community (Resource) Centres services were accessible by all individuals regardless of their status, including internal displaced persons (IDPs), returnees and vulnerable host community members.
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