Antimicrobial Resistance Policy Review and Development Framework

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a long-standing global health concern. It has recently gained political and policy momentum, particularly after the agreement of WHO member states to develop national action plans to address AMR (OECD, 2016; WHO, 2017; O’Neil, 2016). Significant challenges in addressing AMR through policy often include limited political commitment and low awareness and engagement among stakeholders (Dar et al., 2016; OECD, 2016). Often governments have limited capacity to implement policies because of technical capacity and financial resources gaps (FAO, 2014). This Policy Review and Development Framework is for government policy-makers and officials and other stakeholders in AMR and AMU (antimicrobial use) policy for food-animal production within a One Health approach. It offers a practical guide for countries to systematically identify, assess, and strengthen AMR and AMU policies. The Framework is designed to help countries review their national policies and provides examples from countries that facilitate effective national responses to AMR.

The Framework can be used to identify existing legislation, regulation, strategies and other forms of policy that address AMR. The Framework’s review process helps reveal gaps in national AMR and AMU policies and can help assess the compatibility of various types of national policy with international standards for addressing AMR. The primary focus of the Framework is on policies for which national authorities are typically responsible and provides insights into ways that government agencies responsible for addressing AMR can improve their policy approach to ensure that interventions are well-justified, timely and effective. A special emphasis of the Framework is given to stakeholder engagement and multi-sectoral coordination. The Framework raises questions and makes recommendations for addressing specific policy issues and provides case studies of policy interventions which can be adapted to fit various national contexts.