World Vision multi-sector survey identifies key needs, potential solutions in Venezuela
Venezuela is facing a humanitarian crisis driven by ongoing political instability, a deteriorating socioeconomic situation and growing insecurity and violence. Almost all Venezuelans are affected by hyperinflation, the collapse of salaries, shortages of food and medicines, lack of education and health services and deterioration of basic infrastructure including water and sanitation, electricity and public transportation. This has led to the largest exodus in Latin America and the Caribbean’s modern history.
In March 2020, World Vision carried out a multi-sector rapid assessment survey in five states in Venezuela: Caracas, Lara, Miranda, Táchira and Zulia, collecting a total of 1,388 household surveys and 35 key informant interviews covering 12 municipalities and 12 communities. The purpose of the assessment is to identify primary needs and perceived potential solutions in program sectors such as health, WASH, livelihoods, protection and non-food items (NFIs). The study also seeks to understand the level of digital literacy among the population and humanitarian accountability mechanisms in Venezuela.
Overall, about 77% of the surveyed population were women. Among key informants, 60% of the sample were female. The high participation of women is explained by the fact that 54% of households interviewed are female-headed. The age distribution of the household members shows that about 50% of the members of the household are between 18 and 59 years old, 40% are minors mostly between 6 and 17 years old, and the remaining 10% are member over 60 years old.
In terms of household composition, half of the households in the 12 selected communities have between two and four members, and 38% of households have between five and eight members overall. In conclusion, the average household size in the communities of the selected states is 4.7 members, which can be rounded up to five members per household. Comparing with data from the last population census, it is possible to note a significant increase in the average number of people living by house from 3.9 members estimated for 2011.
Nine out of 10 households report being extended families. Regarding if the household hosting migrants (internal or external), only 7% report to be a host household. Zulia is the state with the highest number of households hosting internally displaced persons (IDPs) with 5.1%, following by Caracas 2.3% and Miranda 1.6%. The current national crisis has had an impact at the community level, with 27% of the people consulted report that households have fewer members, the vast majority of whom have migrated to countries in the region, mainly Colombia, as well as to other European countries. This pattern is also explained by internal migratory flows, and by the deaths of its members.