A. Situation analysis
Description of the disaster
On 15 August 2015, a cholera outbreak was reported in Dar es Salaam in Kinondoni district; 1 person died and 4 family members were screened and classified as suspected cholera cases. Cholera began spreading throughout the Dar es Salaam region and 12 other regions: Arusha, Dodoma, Geita, Morogoro, Kigoma, Mara, Mwanza, Shinyanga, Singida, Tabora, Tanga as well as the island of Zanzibar. As of 19 November 2015, there were 8,954 reported cases and 129 deaths according to World Health Organization (WHO), and 19 out of 30 regions had detected and reported cholera cases on mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar (United Nations Resident Coordinator's Office (UNRCO) and Ministry of Health & Social Welfare (MoHSW). According to the MoHSW and Tanzania Red Cross Society (TRCS) volunteers, factors that contributed to the cholera outbreak included; contaminated water sources, poor sanitation and poor hygiene practices.
In May 2015, a cholera outbreak was declared in Nyarugusu refugee camp on the Tanzanian/Burundi border, home to around 175,000 Burundian refugees, with 4,833 cases and 40 deaths reported. The outbreak was contained through a vaccination campaign, the provision of safe water and health education. Neighbouring countries also reported cholera cases in October 2015.
The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) launched an Emergency Appeal on 11 November 2015, which sought CHF 941,146 to support the Tanzania Red Cross Society (TRCS) address the needs of 226,000 people identified as being at risk from the cholera outbreak through community based surveillance and social mobilization activities for a period of six months.
Following detailed assessments, it was identified that there was an urgent need for hygiene promotion and cholera awareness activities at both regional, district and community levels in all affected regions. In addition, there was a critical need for ensuring clean drinking water to affected communities through emergency interventions such as bucket chlorination and household water treatment. The Revised Emergency Appeal incorporated these findings, and increased the budget sought from 941,146 Swiss francs to 1,290,421 Swiss francs to scale up the response in the growing cholera outbreak.
As of May 2016, new Cholera cases were still being reported in regions across Tanzania mainland as shown on figure 1 below. However, there was a reduction in the number of new cholera cases and deaths reported in the hot spot regions. To date cholera has been reported in 22 out of 30 regions, with a total of 109 districts being affected by the Cholera outbreak.