Tanzania alternative cooking fuels and training programme 2018 - Programme final report



At present over 90% of households across all three refugee camps in the Kigoma Region of Tanzania use firewood for cooking, which is being collected from the forests within, and around, the refugee camps leading to deforestation. The burden of collecting firewood also disproportionately affects women and children, who have to travel considerable distances from their homes in order to provide the necessary fuel for cooking, exposing themselves to increased risks of Sexual and Gender Based Violence (SGBV). It is from these concerns that UNHCR and partners in Kigoma Region embarked on a pilot programme to provide the PoCs with alternative cooking energy as well as launching energy saving initiatives in Nyarugusu, Nduta and Mtendeli Refugee Camps. DRC, GNTZ, REDESO, CEMDO and UNHCR were involved in the implementation of this programme which had three main components, namely, Charcoal Briquettes and LPG Comparative analysis at Nduta; manufacturing of charcoal briquettes at Nyarugusu; and community-based training on energy saving practices and SGBV awareness raising in Nduta, Mtendeli and Nyarugusu camps.

Results showed that the per capita briquettes consumption per day was 0.52kg while the per capita consumption for LPG was 0.1 kg per day. Based on these figures, LPG costs 11,500TZS per person per month while the cost of briquettes stands at 18,720TZS per person per month.

Exposure to firewood collection (time spent in firewood collection by household members per week) was reduced by 89% on average. A conclusion can therefore be made that SGBV risks related to firewood collection were reduced by this rate. On the other hand, both LPG and charcoal briquettes were equally preferred by the PoCs while procured dual stoves were generally preferred by the project participants compared to the modified mud stoves. However from a technical and financial point of view, the modified mud stoves are hereby recommended for use with charcoal briquettes.

The charcoal briquettes production project in Nyarugusu camp was not implemented as planned.
The restriction imposed by MHA that cooking fuel should not be sold to the PoCs and that free distribution should be adopted was one of the contributing factors as the original design of the project was based on a market-based approach. This then led to redesigning the project such that the refugees are trained to manufacture the briquettes for their own household consumption to ensure sustainability. This new approach is currently being implemented in Nyarugusu Camp. Further, burning rate testing for the briquettes produced using different sources of raw materials was conducted and it is hereby recommended to produce charcoal briquettes from the raw material mixture comprising of rice husks, coffee husks and sawdust.

There is a positive community perception towards RHC use with over 61% of the participants acknowledging reduction in firewood consumption and consequently reduction in the number of firewood collection trips and in turn reduction in SGBV incidences.

On the other hand, fuel efficient stoves coverage in Nyarugusu stands at 78% while that of Nduta and Mtendeli stands at 84 and 81% respectively. Moreover, the top three commonly used stoves in Nyarugusu Camp are the Brick stoves, Insert stoves and Mud stoves while the top three commonly used stoves in Nduta and Mtendeli Camp are the Insert stoves, Mud stoves and three stone open fire. However, results from stove testing experiment indicates that the mud stoves fabricated by CEMDO were the most energy efficient.