The United Republic of Tanzania was host to 326,942 refugees and asylum-seekers as of 31 December 2018. The majority of refugees are from Burundi and the Democratic Republic of Congo and reside in three refugee camps in north western Tanzania: Nyarugusu, Nduta, and Mtendeli. By year end, 241,976 Burundians were registered as refugees or asylum-seekers, including 70,140 in Nyarugusu camp, 92,388 in Nduta camp and 37,213 in Mtendeli camp. There are approximately 19,154 Burundians in the Old Settlements of Ulyankulu, Mishamo and Katumba and a further 23,047 who are self-settled in Kigoma villages and receive protection assistance. A small population of refugees of mixed nationalities (270) are hosted in urban centres, mainly in Dar es Salaam.
In 2018, access to territory and asylum for new arrivals from Burundi was further restricted following the closure of all 19 reception border entry-points by July 2018 after which the Government of Tanzania made efforts to mobilise returns to Burundi. From July 2018, livelihoods opportunities were further restricted as a result of the temporary closure of the refugee common markets and some refugee-run businesses across the three camps.
Since September 2017, a total of 57,865 Burundians have voluntarily repatriated. However the uncertain political and security context in Burundi continues to impact sustainable returns. A chronic lack of funding was another major obstacle, resulting in severe gaps in the provision of humanitarian assistance. As of 31 December 2018, Tanzania received only 36 per cent of the funding requested for the Burundi RRP. While the Government of Tanzania is not formally applying the Comprehensive Refugee Response Framework (CRRF), it supported the 2018 consultations leading up to the Global Compact on Refugees and voted favourably for its affirmation at the UN General Assembly in December 2018.