The Global Partnership for Education (GPE) Programme (2014- 2016) is a US$5.2 million programme which supports the implementation of the Zanzibar Education Development Plan (ZEDP) 2008/9-2015/16. The GPE support contributes to the achievement of the policy objectives of ZEDP of achieving equitable access, improved quality and improved efficiency and effectiveness in the education sector.
The implementation of the programme is now completed and it was agreed between the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training of Zanzibar (MOEVT) and Sida, the Supervising Entity for the GPE support to Tanzania, to conduct an end-term review. The overall objective of the review is to assess the progress made, identify challenges and constraints faced during implementation with the purpose of recommending actions to address them and making overall recommendations for the next phase.
An Evaluation Team consisting of four independent evaluators supported by the NIRAS Indevelop management and a survey group, NIRAS Tanzania/ Development Pioneer Consultants conducted the review during the period July to August 2017. The review is based on desk study of relevant documents, detailed discussions with implementing departments of the ministry and with semi-autonomous education institutions, a survey of and field visits to TUTU centres, public pre-primary and primary schools, and a few secondary schools on the islands of Unguja and Pemba.
The following summarizes the review team’s findings and main recommendations related to the GPE programme.
Component 1: Expand and strengthen Pre-Primary education
This component’s programmes were largely achieved but its impact on expanding access to pre-primary education is not clear as statistics for 2016 were not available and the gross enrolment ratio (GER) for 2015 was 7.3% less than in 2014. Some 326 primary teachers were shifted into pre-primary and trained at this level. Statistically, the qualification profile of pre-primary teachers remained constant during this period despite certificate training. 240 mentors were trained but are not counted as teachers.
TUTU centres reviewed as a valuable resource in areas where there are no other options. They are, however, not a sustainable route for early childhood development in their current form unless they are integrated into the formal pre-primary provision.
Radio instruction is limited as it is not interactive, sessions are too short and equipment often broken. The monitoring and evaluation of centres was not systematic and did not track mentor training, learners’ profiles (by age or special needs) or by equipment needs. Buildings were often poorly constructed, seldom with toilets, which is a critical problem for the hygiene habits of young children. Mentor attrition was high as allowances are low.
Recommendations for the Ministry
In alignment with ZEDP II pre-primary policy objectives 1-3, the following are proposed:
Develop universal standards on pre-primary school infrastructure and teaching and learning quality, with improved curriculum guidelines for effective monitoring and accountability to take place.
Formalize TUTU Centres in all Ministry systems, including inspection, inclusive education, salaries, ICT support, along with a plan for their eventual phasing-out.
Increase the amount of training for TUTU mentors and develop a bridging programme to allow experienced TUTU mentors to enter the formal pre-primary system.
Consider improved options, such as using cheap mobile phones/tablets, for the modality of instruction in TUTU Centres, including a plan for the maintenance and replacement of ICT equipment for learning.
Component 3: Create a safe learning environment
This component’s programmes were largely completed with some gaps. Significant gains were achieved as every school was trained on counselling methods and in identifying the special needs of children and modifying teaching approaches. No evidence was found of creating a system of counselling feedback and response for schools. 1,056 counselling teachers were trained on how to provide and support children in gender specific issues. Nearly 3,500 girls participated in gender awareness meetings. Safe play areas were created in 30 schools. Some 24 advisors and resource teachers were trained in Inclusive Education and Life Skills. Special needs equipment was procured for Zanzibar Examinations Council (ZEC), Teacher Centres and some schools.
Recommendations for the Ministry
In alignment with ZEDP II primary policy objectives 1 and 2, the following are proposed:
Increase the number of classrooms, with furnishings, at both pre-primary and primary level in relevant districts to reduce overcrowding and allow for tenable classroom-pupil ratios in which teachers can adequately serve all learners.
Reduce pupil/latrines from the high ratios of 164 boys to a toilet and 148 girls to a toilet to more reasonable ratios of 40 to a toilet. Support with WASH training to schools.
Further strengthen Inclusive Education and continue to build on existing initiatives to integrate it across all areas of education, including pre-service, inservice and construction.