Ukraine

Ukraine: Humanitarian Impact Situation Report (As of 12:00 p.m. (EET) on 28 March 2022)

Attachments

This report is produced by OCHA Ukraine in collaboration with humanitarian partners. It covers the period from 12:00 p.m. on 25 March to 12:00 p.m. on 28 March. The next report will be issued on or around 30 March.

KEY FIGURES (FLASH APPEAL 2022)

12M people in need (Source: 2022 Flash Appeal)

6M people targeted (Source: 2022 Flash Appeal)

890K people reached (Source: OCHA)

$1.1B funding required (US$) (Source: 2022 Flash Appeal)

44% funded (Source: FTS)

HIGHLIGHTS

• According to Ukrainian Economy Minister Yulia Svyrydenko, since 24 February, Ukraine has suffered nearly US$565 billion in damages and losses, a figure that continues to rise amid ongoing fighting.

• The World Food Programme (WFP) says food is one of the top three concerns of affected people, estimating that around 45 per cent of people are worried about getting enough food. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) rapid needs assessment across 19 oblasts indicates that food shortages are projected immediately or in the next three months in more than 40 per cent of cases.

• Approximately 90 per cent of Mariupol’s residential buildings (Donetska oblast, east) – around 2,600 homes – have been affected by active fighting, with some 60 per cent suffering various degrees of damage due to direct shelling, while about 40 per cent have been completely destroyed. Local authorities say the rising civilian death toll is fast-approaching 5,000 people.

• Despite considerable operational constraints, the second UN-organized convoy since 24 February reached Kharkiv (Kharkivska oblast, east) on 28 March, carrying relief items from the UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF), UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR), WFP and the World Health Organization (WHO).

• As of 24 March, WFP has provided cash and food assistance to 770,000 people across Ukraine and plans to reach up to 2.5 million people with humanitarian assistance by the end of April.

• UNICEF has dispatched more than 90 trucks carrying nearly 1,050 tons of emergency supplies to support children and families. So far, 63 trucks have arrived in Lviv (Lvivska oblast, west) with critical relief supplies that will address the needs of more than 8 million people, including 2 million children.

SITUATION OVERVIEW

General humanitarian situation. As of 27 March, the civilian toll of the ongoing military offensive stands at 2,975 – including 1,151 killed – according to the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR). In Donetska and Luhanska oblasts in the east, civilian casualties are highest in Government-controlled areas (GCA), with OHCHR reporting 1,017 casualties – including 377 killed and 928 injured – compared to 288 civilian casualties in the nonGovernment-controlled areas (NGCA) of these oblasts (60 killed and 228 injured). In the rest of Ukraine, OHCHR reports 1,670 civilian casualties. Additionally, since 24 February, nearly 10.3 million people and counting have been forcibly displaced within Ukraine and neighbouring countries, whose growing needs remain difficult to assess and effectively address amid a highly volatile security situation.

The destruction of vital civilian infrastructure continues to rise, leading to the destruction of scores of homes across the country and cutting off access to critical services for millions of people. According to Economy Minister Yulia Svyrydenko, since 24 February, Ukraine has suffered nearly $565 billion in damages and losses, a figure that continues to rise amid ongoing fighting. Ms. Svyrydenko added that infrastructure losses amount to $119 billion, including almost 8,000 km of roads, dozens of railway stations and airports damaged or destroyed, $112 billion in losses to gross domestic product (GDP) in 2022, and $90.5 billion in losses incurred by the civilian population, including 10 million m2 of housing and approximately 200,000 vehicles.

According to the Energy Ministry of Ukraine, more than 918,700 users across some 1,435 settlements in Ukraine remain without electricity, up from 850,000 users in over 1,300 settlements on 24 March. Around 6 million people either have limited or no access to safe water, with active hostilities preventing repair teams from fixing damaged systems and restoring access to water while also hindering the delivery of water in the hardest-hit areas, like Donetska and Luhanska oblasts. UNICEF reports that water trucking services have come to a halt due to relentless shelling in some parts of these eastern oblasts, where local authorities say that the water supply remains critical with little possibility to improve access to safe water as hostilities rage on.

As of 28 March, WHO registered 73 confirmed attacks2 on health care that have led to 71 deaths and 37 injuries. Meanwhile, the Ukrainian Ministry of Education and Science says that 659 educational institutions have been damaged and another 74 completely destroyed to date. On 28 March, Kyiv City Administration resumed online learning to allow children and adolescents to continue their education.

Food security. According to FAO, the immediate food security concerns arising from the ongoing military offensive are related to food access, as available grain stocks in Ukraine were around 114 per cent of estimated annual demand before the recent escalation. On 9 March, the Government of Ukraine purchased the equivalent of one year’s worth of national consumption of grain from farmers and traders to bolster existing Government stocks. Ongoing hostilities have triggered significant disruptions to supply chains and markets across Ukraine, leading to consumption gaps in locations where people cannot access markets over consecutive days, even when food is available. These problems are further compounded by the loss of livelihoods and access to critical income sources, including Government-provided pensions and social safety nets, especially in areas with a heavy presence of the Russian Federation forces, like eastern Ukraine, significantly affecting people’s purchasing power and food security.

According to WFP, food is one of the top three concerns of affected people in Ukraine, alongside safety and fuel for transportation. WFP estimates that around 45 per cent of people are worried about getting enough food in Ukraine, adding that one out of five people are thought to be using some food-coping strategies, like reducing the size and number of meals consumed, eating less food and sacrificing meals so that children can have access to sufficient food. FAO’s recent rapid needs assessment across 19 oblasts indicates that food shortages are projected immediately or in the next three months in more than 40 per cent of cases.

Eastern Ukraine. Donetska and Luhanska oblasts continue to be the epicentre of the unfolding humanitarian crisis in Ukraine. On 25 March, food warehouses were reportedly attacked in Sievierodonetsk (Luhanska oblast), according to oblast authorities. While no civilian casualties were reported, important food stocks were allegedly destroyed. That same day, at least three civilians were killed, and nearly 60 others, including at least five children, were reportedly injured in multiple locations in Donetska oblast (both GCA and NGCA). On 26 March, shelling reportedly set fire to two food warehouses as well as three multi-storey residential buildings and several homes in Sievierodonetsk.

Mariupol. The humanitarian situation in Mariupol remains one of the greatest response priorities and challenges. Unlike other hard-hit locations, like Kharkiv, Kyiv (Kyivska oblast, north), Odesa (Odeska oblast, south-west), Dnipro (Dnipropetrovska oblast, centre) and Sumy (Sumska oblast, north), which can still be reached through commercial transport, life-saving humanitarian supplies have failed to reach Mariupol as access and security constraints have prevented aid convoys from entering the encircled city for over a month. In Mariupol, local authorities say the rising civilian death toll is fast-approaching 5,000 people.

As civilian casualties mount amid relentless fighting, the UN Human Rights Monitoring Mission in Ukraine continues to receive information corroborating the existence of mass graves in Mariupol, with one alone estimated to hold around 200 people. In Mariupol, local authorities say around 160,000 people – around 30 per cent of the pre-escalation population of some 540,000 – remain largely without access to basic necessities like adequate food, safe water and electricity. According to local authorities, approximately 90 per cent of Mariupol’s residential buildings – around 2,600 homes – have been affected by active fighting, with some 60 per cent suffering various degrees of damage due to direct shelling, while about 40 per cent have been completely destroyed.

Another grave concern in Mariupol is the reported forcible evacuation of residents to the Russian Federation territory. While around 60,000 people have been evacuated to Ukraine, local authorities estimate that 20,000-30,000 residents from Mariupol have been forcibly evacuated to NGCA and the Russian Federation territory, according to the Mayor of Mariupol Vadym Boichenko. Ukrainian authorities have appealed to the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) to obtain from the Russian Federation a list of residents forcibly evacuated from Mariupol and provide them with an opportunity to return to Ukraine. The forced displacement of residents and the confiscation of their passports and other important documents would constitute a serious violation of the Geneva Conventions. On 25 March, OHCHR announced that they were examining the accusations but had not been able to verify them yet.

Northern Ukraine. The humanitarian situation in the city of Chernihiv (Chernihivska oblast, north) continues to rapidly deteriorate. Relentless shelling has left as many as 130,000 people – less than half of the pre-escalation population of around 290,000 – without electricity, heating and gas. Drinking water is running low across the encircled city, prompting local authorities to impose restrictions on the distribution of drinking water to prevent shortages. Those still trapped in the city remain cut off from Kyiv – about 160 km south of Chernihiv – after the bridge crossing the Desna River in the direction of the capital was destroyed on the night of 22-23 March, leaving people unable to safely evacuate and preventing urgently needed relief supplies from entering the city. Access and security constraints prevent local authorities from organizing humanitarian corridors in and out of the city as needs rise and basic supplies dwindle.

Western Ukraine. After being spared the worst of the ongoing military offensive over the last month, the worst attacks so far have been witnessed in western Ukraine. On 26 March, air raid sirens rang out in Lviv – a safe haven for more than 200,000 people forcibly displaced within Ukraine – after multiple airstrikes hit the city, prompting local authorities to urge residents to seek shelter. Governor Maksym Kozytsky stated that two rockets struck a fuel depot in the eastern outskirts of Lviv, injuring at least five people, followed shortly by another airstrike that hit a military factory. The attacks came just over a week after airstrikes destroyed an aircraft repair plant in the strategic western city some 60 km from the border with Poland.

The same day, in neighbouring Rivnenska oblast (north-west), local authorities reported that a missile strike destroyed an oil depot in Dubno. According to oblast authorities, the flames were quickly extinguished by local firefighting crews, adding that critical chemical and radiation indicators remain within the permissible range and thus, pose no immediate threat to the nearby population. Similarly, in Volynska oblast (north-west), an oil depot was reportedly destroyed near the administrative centre of Lutsk, raising concerns that the scope and scale of the ongoing military offensive may continue to expand further westward.

Civilian evacuations. According to the Ministry for Reintegration of Ukraine, between 25 and 27 March, nearly 13,640 people were evacuated through agreed-upon humanitarian corridors, mainly from Mariupol (4,910 people), affected communities in Kyivska oblast (more than 350) and Luhanska oblast (more than 1,000). In Donetska oblast, nearly 50 buses intended to pick up residents previously evacuated from Mariupol and currently stuck in Berdiansk (Zaporizka oblast, southeast) were prevented from entering the city. Meanwhile, the Russian Federation reported that it evacuated around 12,825 people, including 2,045 children, from affected areas in Ukraine to the Russian Federation. In total, the Russian Federation reports that more than 469,680 people, including some 97,345 children, have crossed into the Russian Federation from Ukraine.

Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). In recent days, fires have raged in the areas surrounding the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone, scorching more than 10,000 hectares of forests that have increased levels of radioactive air pollution, according to the Ukrainian Ombudsman Lyudmyla Denisova. Windy and dry conditions could possibly intensify fires near the NPP, potentially leading to large-scale fires that would be difficult for local emergency crews to contain as the presence of the Russian Federation forces limits access. On 27 March, fresh fires broke out in the area surrounding the Chornobyl NPP, prompting Ukrainian Deputy Prime Minister Iryna Vereshchuk to appeal to the UN Security Council to take immediate action to demilitarize the exclusion zone.

Moreover, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) says there has not been a shift change among technical staff at the Chornobyl NPP since 21 March. The current staff arrived at the plant on 20-21 March to replace co-workers who had been working non-stop since the Russian Federation forces allegedly took over the site on 24 February. After days of relentless shelling at civilian checkpoints in the city of Slavutych (Kyivska oblast) – where the operational personnel of NPP and their families live – the Russian Federation forces reportedly entered the city, putting at further risk the critical rotation of staff who ensure the nuclear and radiation safety at the Chornobyl NPP. Meanwhile, IAEA is still reportedly unable to receive remote data transmission from the NPP monitoring systems.

Disclaimer

UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
To learn more about OCHA's activities, please visit https://www.unocha.org/.