This report is produced by OCHA Ukraine in collaboration with humanitarian partners. It covers the period from 12:00 p.m. on 18 April to 12:00 p.m. on 21 April. The next report will be issued on or around 26 April.
• Eastern and southern parts of Ukraine continue to face the fiercest fighting, exacerbating the already dire humanitarian crisis. As intense fighting and airstrikes continue to cause civilian casualties and damage to civilian infrastructure across the country, the duration of martial law in Ukraine was extended until 25 May 2022.
• According to the International Organization for Migration (IOM), 600,000 additional people were internally displaced in the first 17 days of April, bringing the total number of internally displaced persons (IDPs) to 7.7 million. In total, nearly 12.8 million have been displaced internally or across borders since 24 February.
• On 21 April, the Humanitarian Coordinator for Ukraine released a new US$50 million allocation from the Ukraine Humanitarian Fund (UHF), the largest allocation of the Fund to date.
• As of 21 April, the UN and its humanitarian partners have reached over 3.4 million people across Ukraine, including over 917,000 in Kharkivska oblast (east), more than 410,000 in Kyivska oblast (north), nearly 350,000 in Lvivska oblast (west) and over 218,000 in Zakarpatska oblast (west).
• The fifth UN-led inter-agency humanitarian convoy reached Chernihiv (Chernihivska oblast, north) on 20 April. The convoy delivered nine trucks of critical relief supplies for more than 13,800 people in Chernihiv and nearby communities, which will be distributed by the Ukrainian Red Cross Society and their local partners.
General humanitarian situation. Over the reporting period, the hostilities continued to be concentrated in eastern and southern parts of Ukraine, primarily in eastern Donetska, Kharkivska and Luhanska oblasts. As intense fighting and airstrikes continue to cause civilian casualties and damage to civilian infrastructure, the Parliament of Ukraine extended the duration of martial law for another month until 25 May 2022. While some provisions under martial law have been eased, the ban on leaving the country for men aged 18 to 60 years old remains in place.
The civilian toll of the ongoing military offensive has now surpassed the 5,000 mark. As of 20 April, the number of civilian casualties since 24 February 2022 stands at 5,264, including 2,345 killed and 2,919 injured, according to the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR). Most of the civilian casualties recorded were caused by the use of explosive weapons with a wide impact area, including shelling from heavy artillery, multiple launch rocket systems and airstrikes. OHCHR believes the actual figures are considerably higher, as the receipt of information from some locations where intense hostilities have been going on has been delayed, and many reports are still pending corroboration.
Economic impact and food security. The International Monetary Fund (IMF), in its latest World Economic, has predicted a 35 per cent decrease in Ukraine’s economy this year and that the ongoing war would also negatively impact global commodity markets, trade and financial channels. Further, IMF reported that it could not forecast the situation in Ukraine beyond “a very strong recession” in 2022 because of the unusually high degree of uncertainty. IMF stressed that even if the war ended soon, the displacement and loss of people, as well as the destruction of physical capital, would seriously hamper economic activity for many years to come. Meanwhile, IMF forecasts that the Russian Federation’s gross domestic product would only decrease by 8.5 per cent this year and then a further 2.3 per cent in 2023. Further, IMF concluded that, beyond the immediate humanitarian impacts, the war in Ukraine would severely set back the global recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic, slowing growth and increasing inflation even further.
Separately, on 19 April, IMF announced that its Executive Board had approved the establishment of the Resilience and Sustainability Trust (RST) to help countries build resilience to such external shocks as the war in Ukraine and to ensure sustainable growth contributing to their long-term balance of payments stability. IMF said about three-quarters of its membership would be eligible for longer-term affordable financing from RST, including all low-income countries, all developing and vulnerable small states, and lower-middle-income countries.
The UN, including the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), has likewise been warning about how the worsening conflict negatively impacts the economy and livelihoods, food prices, and food security in Ukraine and around the world. On 19 April, FAO renewed its appeal to bolster agriculture and provide urgent support to vulnerable rural households, specifying that more than $115 million is urgently needed to assist Ukrainian farmers and rural households through December 2022. It said the funding would help prevent further deterioration of the food insecurity situation and worsen the disruption of food supply chains in Ukraine. There is an urgency to support Ukrainian farmers in planting vegetables and potatoes during this spring season, and farmers should be allowed and supported to go to their fields and save the winter wheat harvest. FAO has estimated that one-third of Ukrainian crops and agricultural land may not be harvested or cultivated in 2022.
Eastern Ukraine. On 19 April, Geneva-based NGO ACAPS released a thematic report on “The Humanitarian Situation in Donetska, Kharkivska, and Luhanska Oblasts” that concludes in part that the three eastern oblasts have recorded around 50 per cent of all reported conflict events in Ukraine since 24 February. Together with high access constraints, the situation has led to severe information gaps around the needs and living conditions of people remaining in those oblasts. Access dynamics vary there and depend on the degree of active conflict, divided control over the territories, damage to roads and critical infrastructure, and landmine contamination. The humanitarian situation in areas of heavy conflict and shelling is dire, with civilians forced to find shelter and endure frequent electricity, heating, telecommunication and water cuts resulting from damage to critical infrastructure. Active hostilities drastically reduce the mobility of people and goods, threaten civilian lives, restrict aid delivery and prevent humanitarians from accessing people in need of life-saving aid. ACAPS added that the renewed hostilities starting around 18 April would likely only further negatively impact Donetska, Kharkivska and Luhanska oblasts. There are also concerns over international humanitarian law violations as related reports emerge from areas previously affected by intense fighting in the country.
Northern Ukraine. Based on imagery collected on 31 March 2022 and 20 February 2022 by the United Nations Satellite Centre (UNOSAT), analysts found that 147 structures in Bucha (Kyivska oblast) sustained damage visible in the satellite imagery. Out of these, 19 are destroyed, 72 severely damaged, 27 moderately damaged and 29 possibly damaged. This includes three health facilities. UNOSAT also reports that 77 per cent of Horenka, 71 per cent of Irpin, and 58 per cent of Hostomel city area (all in Kyivska oblast) suffered damage and destruction. In addition, around 1.4 per cent of the western part of Kyiv suffered significant damage.
Western Ukraine. World Vision has released its Rapid Needs Assessment (RNA) for people displaced from northern and eastern Ukraine conducted in Chernivtsi (Chernivetska oblast, west) from 6 to 8 April. Among the results, 85 per cent of assessed households said they did not plan to leave Ukraine, 95 per cent were staying in IDP centres, 68 per cent of families had not left anyone behind, and 31 per cent did leave family members behind – mainly adult men. Only 19 per cent of respondents reported being able to afford basic items, 41 per cent said they could afford most, 37 per cent only some and 3 per cent could meet none of their basic needs. On priorities in the following one-to-two weeks, 23 per cent of respondents said that it was affordable shelter, 21 per cent mentioned food, and 13 per cent finding work. Within the following one-to-two months, food was named as the priority by 46 per cent, affordable shelter by 37 per cent, clothing and shoes by 32 per cent, and finding work by 30 per cent of respondents.
Displacement. According to IOM, 600,000 additional people were internally displaced in the first 17 days of April, bringing the total number of IDPs to 7.7 million. IOM estimates that 2.8 million have returned to their homes following earlier displacement, with an average length of displacement of 30 days. These returns may be both temporary or permanent. Moreover, 15 per cent of current IDPs plan to return to their homes in the next two weeks, mainly heading to Kyiv and the northern parts of the country. In addition, as of 20 April, the UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) informs that nearly 5.1 million people have crossed international borders since 24 February.
The Ukrainian Ministry for Reintegration of Temporarily Occupied Territories reported that no evacuation routes from heavily-affected areas had been agreed on between 18 and 19 April (for the second and third consecutive days), while the hostilities reportedly continue to intensify in eastern Ukraine. That meant no agreements were reached to allow civilians to leave Mariupol (Donetska oblast). Nevertheless, on 20 April, four buses reportedly did pass through an evacuation corridor from Mariupol, according to the Deputy Prime Minister/Reintegration Minister of Ukraine. Even though a humanitarian corridor reportedly did not operate as agreed, four buses reportedly left the city bound for Zaporizhzhia (Zaporizka oblast, south-east). Also, reportedly, humanitarian corridors were expected to be opened on 21 April and allow for more evacuations from Mariupol and Khersonska oblast (south).
Separately, the Russian Federation reported that, since 24 February, more than 908,900 people, including more than 166,000 children, have crossed into its territory. The UN does not have the means to verify the number of people who crossed international borders reported by the UN Member States. At the same time, as of 20 April, UNHCR estimates that over 563,000 people have sought refuge in the Russian Federation.
- UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
- To learn more about OCHA's activities, please visit https://www.unocha.org/.