Context & Methodology
More than 4.7 million refugees from Ukraine have been recorded across Europe and more than 2.8 million refugees from Ukraine have been registered for temporary protection or similar national protection schemes in Europe as of 25 May 2022 (UNHCR). Since 28 February, a total of 2,164,500 movements back into Ukraine from the Western border have taken place. The number of border crossings out of Ukraine into neighboring countries is still declining and the number of crossings back is now higher.
Movement back to Ukraine may be pendular, and do not necessarily indicate sustainable returns as the situation across Ukraine remains highly volatile and unpredictable.
In May 2022, as part of the longitudinal study conducted by IMPACT, 709 refugees who left Ukraine were contacted to follow up interviews. 6 out of 100 that responded to a second follow up reported to have returned to Ukraine six weeks after having first left the country.
To understand the drivers of such movements and people’s intentions, 3,005 interviews were conducted with people crossing back to Ukraine from Poland, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania and Moldova. Interviews were conducted in neighboring countries at checkpoints, reception centers and railway stations in the vicinity of the Ukrainian border, and began on 3 April. This factsheet includes cumulative responses from 3 April to 25 May.
Interviewees were selected among individuals reportedly wanting to enter Ukraine purposively to gain a broader understanding of experiences and intentions. The sample is not statistically representative and results should therefore only be considered as indicative.
The map on the right shows assessed checkpoints, as well as percentage of respondents by reported oblast/area of destination.