Since May 2014, Ukraine has been experiencing a military conflict between the government of Ukraine’s forces and armed opposition groups across Luhansk and Donetsk oblasts situated in the eastern region of Donbas. During the protracted conflict there have been repeated ceasefire violations and violence that has posed significant security risks to civilian populations, damage to critical infrastructure and difficulty accessing services leading to signifiant humanitarian needs.
Map 1 shows the line of contact (LoC) that seperates populations in GCA from densely populated urban areas in NGCA that is causing major restrictions on movement. As a result, populations are cut off from access to basic goods and services, exacerbating the humanitarian needs of the population.
REACH has been conducting multi-sector needs assessments (MSNAs) monitoring impacts of the conflict on the population since 2016, tracking trends in the changes of humanitarian needs in government controlled areas (GCA)1 with a focus on food security and livelihoods, shelter, protection, and access to basi services sucah as education, healthcare and water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH). In June of 2018, to further support evidence-based planning, the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) and the Inter-Cluster Coordination Group (ICCG), in partnership with REACH, conducted a trend analysis assessment of the needs of the conflict affected population in GCA. This fact sheet summarises key findings of this assessment presenting a comparison to the previous Multi-Sector Needs Assessments (MSNAs).
Households (HHs) living closer to the LoC within 5km areas were more likely to report concerns over the risk of shelling than HHs living further from the LoC (86% in 5km areas, 29% in areas between 5-20km and 9% in areas beyond 20km). Also within the 5km areas, 19% of HHs reported concern about military presence and their perception of safety was significantly worse than in areas further from the LoC, with 44% of HHs reporting feeling a constant threat to their life during the night.
Shelter & Non Food Items (NFIs)
The proportion of HHs reporting damage to shelter was higher in areas within 5km of the LoC than in areas further from the LoC (29% in 5km areas, 12% in areas between 5-20km and 9% in areas beyond 20km).
HHs living within 5km of the LoC were more likely to report the cause of damage to their shelter as mainly due to shelling.
While HHs across all assessed areas reported missing essential NFIs in their homes, this was more acute in rural areas. Over half of rural HHs are missing a heater (62%), 11% are missing a refrigerator and 10% are missing a stove.
Overall, HHs closer to the LoC are more likely to be either moderately or severely food insecure. Within 5km of the LoC, these proportions were 13% in rural areas and 15% within small urban areas, respectively.
There is a higher proportion of HHs within 5km of the LoC with poor or borderline food consumption scores (16%), compared to 10% in areas between 5-20km and 9% in areas beyond 20km.
Of HHs with school aged children (6%), 13% reported having no access to any education facility. Of HHs with children accessing an education facilty, HHs in urban areas within 5km of the LoC were most likely to report gaps in attendance of more than one month (19%). Overall, the main reported reasons for gaps in school attendance were health reasons and closed schools but in rural areas within 5km of the LoC, the main reason for gaps in school attendance was due to security concerns.
The most reported security concerns when accessing education services were hearing and seeing shelling.
HHs in rural areas within 5km of the LoC were most likely to report difficulty in accessing healthcare services (61%). The main barrier reported in accessing health care was the cost of medicines. The least available types of specialised care reported by HHs was obstetricgynaecological, gastroentrology and mental healthcare. In terms of psycho-social support, almost half (46%) of HHs reported that they did not know where their closest psychological support centre was.
Fifty-six percent (56%) of HHs reported being dissatisfied with the quality of their drinking water. HHs living within 5km of the LoC were more likely to report daily water shortages (16%).