Turkey

UNICEF Recovery Plan for Turkish Children Situation Report 20 Jan 2000

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UNICEF Turkey Country Office
I. Situation Analysis

a - General Overview

On 17 August and 12 November 1999, two earthquakes devastated the populated and industrial northwestern parts of Turkey. Although the exact number of deaths is unknown, the Turkish authorities report that over 18,000 people have been killed and 49,000 people injured during both earthquakes.

The Turkish Government and the Turkish Armed Forces have undertaken the coordination role for the earthquake area. Government officials report that 198 mobile soup kitchens, 173 mobile showers and 14 laundries are functioning in both the Sea of Marmara and the Bolu/Duzce earthquake areas. In addition to these figures, 273 General Practitioners and specialized doctors, 194 nurses, 918 health personnel, 264 ambulances, 8 mobile hospitals, and 25 mobile clinics are providing services to the earthquake victims.

b - Shelter Analysis

Five provinces have been specifically affected, namely Kocaeli, Sakarya, Yalova, Bolu and Duzce. The Government of Turkey has proposed three alternatives to address the challenge of providing shelter to homeless populations:


Provision of prefabricated houses for all affected families that wish to be sheltered in prefabricated cities. (See table 1.1)
Allocation of a reconstruction subsidy of US$ 1,500 for families whose residences were lightly damaged. As of 13 January, of 53,583 applicant families, 41,573 families had received reconstruction subsidies. This represents a cost of US$ 62.3 million. (See table 1.3 below)

Allocation of a monthly rental subsidy of US$ 200 for each family moving to newly rented house. As of 13 January, of 106,140 applicant families, 91,074 families were receiving rental subsidies. This represents a monthly cost of US$ 18.2 million. (See table 1.3 below)


However, the provision of shelter to approximately 176,000 earthquake victims during the winter is one of the most difficult issues to address, in spite of the enormous efforts by the Government of Turkey and the private sector.

Prefabricated Houses’ Situation:

In October 1999, the Government of Turkey announced that it plans to provide approximately 35,000 prefabricated houses to accommodate approximately 151,000 persons. The Turkish private sector promised to donate 12,040 prefabricated houses to shelter approximately 54,000 people. Jointly, some 47,000 prefabricated houses are planned for construction to accommodate 205,000 persons.

Table 1.1 Prefabricated Houses Situation in the Earthquake Area, (18 January 2000)

No. of Prefabricated cities Gov+Private
Houses completed
Houses distributed
Current population of Prefabricated cities
No. of applications
Kocaeli
15
13,881
5,769
23,076
6,647
Sakarya
39
9,089
5,526
22,104
8,429
Yalova
16
5,530
3,753
15,012
3,083
Bolu
10
382
200
800
4,760
Duzce
17
3,259
2,836
11,344
4,745
Total
97*
32,141
18,084
72,336**
27,664
* The number of prefabricated cities is higher, as information on private prefabricated cities in Kocaeli is not available.

** The Government estimates population figures in prefabricated cities by multiplying houses distributed by four (4).

In Kocaeli and Yalova provinces, the number of applications for prefabricated houses is much lower than the number of prefabricated houses provided by the Ministry of Housing (MoH). In order to empty all tent camps and resettle populations into prefabricated houses for the winter, the Government decided to build prefabricated houses in accordance with the number of earthquake victims rather than the number of applicants. However, many victims still refuse to move into the prefabricated houses in order not to forfeit the food and financial aid given only to those living in tent camps. As an attempt to promote settlement in prefabricated cities, the Turkish Government is planning to bestow US$100 per month to families who move into the prefabricated houses.



As of 18 January, more than 72,000 people have moved into prefabricated houses.

Tent Camps’ Situation:

Despite the Government’s tremendous efforts to finalize the prefabricated cities in a short period of time and encourage families to leave tent camps, more than 108,000 people remain in tents.

Table 1.2 Tent Camp Situation in the Earthquake Area, (13 January 2000)

Province
Total Population
Number of camps
Number of beneficiaries in camps
Number of tents
Percentage of people in camp/ total population per province
Kocaeli
1,177,380
29
31,991
7,466
2,71%
Sakarya
731,800
2
4,697
1,615
0.64%
Yalova
163,920
6
5,993
1,315
3.65%
Bolu
382,401
13
14,553
3,699
3.81%
Duzce
170,619
27
51,450
13,415
30.1%
Total
2,626,120
77
108,684
27,510
4.14%
As indicated in the above table, during this reporting period, (30 December 1999 to 18 January 2000), the number of tent camps in the devastated area decreased from 109 to 77 and the number of beneficiaries was reduced from 132,750 to 108,684. These figures indicate that 24,066 people have moved either into prefabricated houses, opted to spend winter at a state guest-house or found a solution of their own. Yet the humanitarian situation in Duzce province remains acute, as more than 30% of the total population still lives in tent camps.

With the exception of Sakarya and Yalova provinces, the population sheltered in tent camps in Kocaeli, Bolu and Duzce provinces is higher than the population sheltered in prefabricated houses. Despite contrary trends in Duzce province, it is observed that in general, the earthquake affected population is beginning to settle into the prefabricated cities, when compared to figures available in previous weeks. During this reporting period, 3,300 prefabricated houses have been occupied, thus providing an increase in the number of housing units occupied by families from 14,784 to 18,084.



Reconstruction and Monthly Rental Subsidies

The Turkish Government pays a total US$ 18.2 million to 91,074 people as a Monthly Rental Subsidy every month. It’s foreseen that this amount will be reduced by half to people who move into prefabricated houses.

Table 1.3 Financial Subsidies in the Earthquake Area

No. of people applying for Subsidy
Provinces
Kocaeli
Sakarya
Yalova
Bolu
Duzce
Grand Total
Applicants for Monthly Rental Subsidy
59,454
23,035
14,850
2,146
6,655
106,140
Receiving Monthly Rental Subsidy
51,487
22,579
12,618
2,146
2,244
91,074
Applicants for Reconstruction Subsidy
30,773
12,463
10,347
---
1,622
53,583
Receiving Reconstruction Subsidy
19,996
12,043
8,751
---
783
41,573
c- UNICEF’s Response and Framework of Activities

In consultation with the Government of Turkey (GoT), UNICEF is currently implementing a Recovery Plan for Turkish Children (RPTC) to respond in an integrated manner to the needs of children and women affected by the earthquake. Valued at $14.2 million, the RPTC includes relief and rehabilitation interventions in the health, nutrition, education, water, sanitation and psycho-social sectors. In addition to relief interventions, UNICEF focuses on rehabilitation efforts and is actively advocating with government counterparts and humanitarian partners to ensure that all basic services are available to the affected children and mothers.

The Recovery Plan for Turkish Children (RPTC), developed in August 1999 and conceived for a period of six months, is being implemented in all areas affected by the 17 August and 12 November Earthquakes. The international community, through 14 UNICEF National Committees and 10 Governments, has responded generously to the UNICEF Recovery Plan. This commitment has been concretized by contributions of $US 13.8 million, or 97.5% of the total amount required to implement the RPTC.

Activities are implemented through an integrated multi-sectoral approach which aims to provide a friendly environment for children and their mothers in tent camps and prefabricated cities, using the concept of "Child Friendly Environment" as a model. This concept is based on the provision of an integrated set of services to meet the basic needs of children and their mothers in various areas, namely the health, nutrition, education, water, sanitation, and psycho-social sectors.

UNICEF has established a strong presence in the Sea of Marmara earthquake affected area through its field base in Izmit. More than 15 staff are stationed at the Izmit base and travel continuously within the region to organize the distribution of supplies and materials, identify needs, monitor conditions and implement UNICEF programme activities.

II - UNICEF Activities

a- EDUCATION

Supply of School Materials

As a result of the earthquakes, many schools lost materials and supplies. In addition, many students lost their houses and with it all their possessions. This project aims to identify those schools that have been most affected by the earthquake, and supply materials to these classes. A total of 500 educational kits, 500 recreational kits and 250 pre-school kits are being distributed in the five affected provinces.

The distribution of the educational, recreational and pre-school kits is complete in Yalova and Kocaeli, provinces. Follow-up visits by UNICEF teams has ensured that all schools on the distribution plan have received supplies.

Total Kits Distributed in Kocaeli and Yalova Provinces
Type of Kit
No. of kits
No. of Schools
No. of Students
Educational Kits
334
60
14,465
Recreational Kits
334
58
20,910
Pre-school Kits
250
110**
3,880
Total
918
135*
39,255
* In some cases, the same schools received educational and recreational kits, therefore the total is not the sum of the above figures

** Schools and creches

The distribution plan for the region of Adapazari has been finalized, and distribution began on Monday, 17 January 2000. The distribution plan for Adapazari is as follows:

Adapazari Distribution Plan
Type of Kit
No. of kits
No. of Schools
No. of Students
Educational Kits
166
23
6,882
Recreational Kits
166
73
18,520
Pre-school Kits
63
63
1,260
Total
395
159
26,662
Under the second phase of the Supply of School Materials project, 1,563 educational kits and 543 recreational kits have been ordered for 181 pre-fabricated schools (1,563 classes).

The distribution of education and recreational kits in tent schools has been completed in Duzce and Kaynasli for a total of 400 educational kits and 200 recreational kits. The distribution numbers are found in the table below:

Duzce and Kaynasli Distribution (tent schools)
Type of Kit
No. of kits
No. of Schools
No. of Students
Educational Kits
400
36
16,889
Recreational Kits
200
36
8,120
Total
600
36*
16,889*
* The same schools and students received educational and recreational kits.

School Nutrition Programme

In response to a concern by the health teams as to the well being of the children in this area, UNICEF has begun a short-term programme to distribute high protein biscuits in the health centres of the tent cities and in the schools within the Earthquake area. The Ministry of National Education has identified the most vulnerable schools by surveying the school transportation system, and assessing where the children from the tent cities attend school. The total number of beneficiaries can be found in the table below, together with the cumulative quantity of biscuits distributed.

Yalova
Kocaeli
Sakarya
Total
No. of Schools
21
64
5
84
No. of Students
10,371
31,320
2,394
40,201
Cumulative weight of biscuits
29.3 tons
84.533 tons
6.7 tons
120.533 tons
Biscuit distribution to the schools has proven a logistical challenge on occasion. For future deliveries, an agreement has been reached to rent trucks to assist the Ministry of National Education with the distribution. Distribution was initiated this week after some delay by the factory.

The biscuit distribution programme has extended its coverage to include the second earthquake region. The new target beneficiaries of this programme for the region is shown on the table below:

Province
Number of Students
Weight Per Month (30 days)
Bolu
15,000
45 tons
Duzce
10,000
30 tons
Yalova
10,371
31.113 tons
Adapazari
24,183
72.5 tons
Kocaeli
46,000
138 tons
Total
105,554 students
316.6 tons
Pallet Distribution

The distribution of pallets is ongoing - to date a total of 13,000 have been installed to protect schoolchildren from the humid and muddy ground. The pallet project has been very well received, as tent schools are only able to open once the pallets are in place. Due to the effectiveness of the intervention, an additional 3,000 pallets will be added, making the total distribution now 19,500.

The Ministry of National Education is establishing 375 tent schools: 160 in Duzce, and the remainder in and around Bolu centre. UNICEF will supply pallets for 300 of the tents in the area. Seventy-five tent schools have already received them.

Planning Workshop

A small workshop was held with 5 primary school teachers to assess the contents of the educational and recreational kits already distributed. The objective of the workshop was to refine the list of contents to include only the most useful supplies for future distribution at additional schools. The kits were well received, and the Ministry of National Education has requested that more be provided.

b- PSYCHOSOCIAL

Rapid assessments have shown that the psychological impact of the disaster on the population has been profound. Experiences from comparable disasters have shown that psychological problems caused by the extensive exposure to traumatic events and the high degree of losses will result in long-term psychological, educational and health problems in a significant portion of the affected populations. Such trauma may arrest the resumption of normal daily life activities. Even limited psychological interventions, if implemented in an appropriate manner, can have a lasting positive impact on the life experience of children and adults.

During this reporting period, the Psycho-social team held extensive meetings to discuss the school based intervention programe and the debriefing needs in the epicentre of the second earthquake area (Duzce, Bolu and Kaynasli). The team also visited local Ministry of National Education offices and schools. Preliminary discussions concluded that greater emphasis should be given to the implementation of school-based interventions. Programme content and structure, project implementation, role and responsibilities of school personnel and the referral system were among topics discussed.

The recent addition of a Child Psychiatrist/Consultant to the Earthquake Emergency Psycho-social and Health programmes will help strengthen complementarities between the on-going School-Based Intervention Programme, implemented by the Ministry of National Education, and the existing mental health referral system for severely traumatized children, implemented by the Ministry of Health.

Teachers and counselors in Adapazari and Izmit reported that they are expecting to begin school-based intervention. They articulated a need for materials for psychosocial interventions and printed documents, in order to disseminate information to teachers, parents and students.

Child Friendly Environment

The total number of tent cities in the first earthquake is currently 34, a dramatic decrease in quantity, more and more people choose to relocate to prefabricated cities. UNICEF has been at the forefront of advocating that all prefabricated cities must have a supportive physical and social infrastructure and activities to meet the special needs of children. UNICEF maintains that prefabricated cities must have creches, youth activities and after school recreational activities.

All prefabricated cities have been visited by UNICEF’s Psychosocial team, and those with the largest populations were targeted as the starting point for the activities. UNICEF is actively seeking both building space, and personnel to run and manage the creches and recreational centres, and is offering equipment and supplies as a means to encourage the positive response of communities and private organizations. UNICEF is supporting the NGOs Yoret Foundation and Enfants du Monde to work in Yenikoy and Bahcecik prefabricated cities respectively.

Supplies for the centres have been identified, and have been ordered the second week of January 2000.

Province
Creche
Recreational Facilities
Youth Centre
Izmit
3
7
7
Adapazari
5
5
5
Yalova
1
1
1
TOTAL
9
13
13
UNICEF provides on-going support to Child Friendly Environment services within the tent cities. Supplies have been distributed during the first week of January, with follow up visits to the centres.

Thus far, UNICEF has distributed 44 after school recreational kits, 21 preschool kits, 94 trunks, 40 plastic tables, 80 plastic chairs, 1 table tennis game, 2 rackets, 35 table tennis balls and 6 tents to SHCEK and NGOs working in 16 tent cities in Adapazari, Izmit and Yalova.

c-WATER AND SANITATION

Water Distribution Projects

Water Distribution in Düzce was initiated during the first week of January through which a daily average of 600 m³ of water is provided to more than 30,000 people in Düzce province. As a result of this project, a substantial portion of the need for safe drinking water in Duzce is met. Even though many residents of the provinces are able to obtain water from the municipal water network in some areas, they prefer to drink water from the tankers because of their concerns of water contamination due to broken pipes. The provision of safe drinking water by a private company hired by UNICEF currently allows the Municipality and Fire Brigade to attend to other needs, such as the repair of infrastructure in the city.

UNICEF contracted a truck company for the Adapazari Waster Distribution project from 16 October 1999 to 16 January 2000 to provide 15 truck tankers for water distribution. A total of 21 drivers and fifteen trucks, 6 of which worked 24 hours per day, were engaged for the project. In fact, the truck company provided 16 truck tankers - one extra to be used as a spare if any of 15 tankers broke down.

Adapazari Municipality provided UNICEF with a progress report assessing the Adapazari Water Distribution Project. The Municipality determined that the project was very successful in providing safe drinking water to populations in need, and helpful assisting the Municipality and Fire Brigade in fulfilling the water need in the area. The distribution of water reached 1,260 to 1,375 metric tons of water per day.

Following a meeting with the Vice Mayor and Fire Brigade Deputy Director, it was estimated that the need for water distribution in the area will continue until March 2000. In keeping with this finding, Adapazar? Municipality requested UNICEF to extend the project in their progress report.

New Clusters

The identification of new cluster installation areas has been directed to school areas, as the Ministry of National Education has prohibited resumption of classes in damaged school buildings. Seven new school areas have been identified for latrine installations.

A meeting was held on 12 January 2000 in which Duzce authorities and other service providers discussed latrine and shower provision in the province. Each group stated its potential for providing services and infrastructure. A new plan for installation has been prepared according to needs of the population. The Crisis Center, Duzce Municipality and Health Center prepared the list of needs and installation areas by assessing information provided by local authorities, UNICEF, Caritas, Memisa, Turkish Protestant Churches and other relevant groups. The meeting was very effective in coordinating the installation and distribution of latrine and shower infrastructure and services in the area.

A Water and Sanitation Operation and Maintenance Protocol was discussed a second time with the Earthquake Coordinator Governor based in Izmit. The Protocol is envisaged to ensure the continuous utilization of water and sanitation facilities by populations in the area. The finalized Protocol is being prepared for the Earthquake Coordinator Governor and UNICEF Turkey’s Representative for their approval. Under the terms of the Protocol, a comprehensive maintenance and operating system ensures the continuous usage of facilities. The terms of the Protocol includes the following: (1) the operation and maintenance of the units remains the responsibility of Camp Managers; (2) Camp Managers will deputize a team of technicians to undertake major repairs; and (3) UNICEF will follow-up with the manufacturer in the case of defects, as some repairs are under warranty clauses.

d-HEALTH

Measles Campaign

The Ministry of Health’s measles campaign, undertaken throughout the earthquake area, is currently being implemented in Sakarya, Bolu and Duzce provinces. The campaign is designed to vaccinate 500,000 children against measles in the area. UNICEF has provided 500,000 measles vaccines and syringes. It is estimated that more than 200,000 children have been vaccinated. The exact number will be provided once Bolu and Duzce provinces submit their coverage data.

Number of Children Vaccinated Against Measles
Province
No. of Children Vaccinated
Sakarya
52,000
Kocaeli
78,791 (includes routine measles shots)
Yalova
18,000
Bolu
Awaiting Data
Duzce
Awaiting Data
The Ministry of Health expanded its measles campaign from the 1-6 age group to the 1-15 age group in the earthquake area after nine measles cases were reported in Golcuk in November 1999. Thus far, the Ministry of Health has vaccinated the entire 7-14 age group in Kocaeli province. The vaccination campaign is on-going in the other Provinces.

High Protein Biscuits

The distribution of supplementary high protein biscuits through the health centres is on-going in Kocaeli, Sakarya and Yalova provinces for children in the 1-6 age group and pregnant and lactating mothers. Distribution plans for Bolu and Duzce will be finalized next week, in conjunction with UNICEF’s education team.

Seminars

The Ministry of Health has requested a refresher-training course for 350 Primary Health Care Centre (PHCC) staff in Bolu and Duzce on the topics of immunization and nutrition. It is envisaged that this course will take place during the month of January 2000.

e- Monitoring and Evaluation

UNICEF Training of Kocaeli University Students

UNICEF/Ankara and the University of Kocaeli entered into an agreement on 29 December to monitor the humanitarian situation in tent camps and prefabricated cities in the earthquake area. This accord will help UNICEF assess the implementation of project activities and review the availability of basic services for children in the education, psycho-social, health, water and sanitation sectors by collecting data in all tent camps and prefabricated cities. On 3 January, UNICEF staff, in conjunction with professors of Kocaeli University, provided training to twenty-six students in data collection and interview techniques. The following day, one Team Leader, two Assistant Team Leaders and twenty-four students were deployed for a period of five working days to collect information from all tent camps and prefabricated cities in the earthquake area.

Monitoring UNICEF Activities with Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

UNICEF will inaugurate a Geographic Information System project to assist the monitoring of its multi-sectoral activities related to the earthquake programme. This project will help UNICEF express quantitative data visually, to provide a comprehensive overview of relief interventions. Information collected by the Kocaeli University (see above), Government Ministries and others will be incorporated. GIS activities are envisaged to begin the third week of January 2000.

III. Level of Funding

As of 18 January 2000, contributions to UNICEF Recovery Plan for Turkish Children amounted to US$ 13,876,990. Only 2.5% of the total amount required has not yet been covered. US$ 6,712,483 has been received/pledged from UNICEF National Committees, and US$ 7,128,464 from Governments.

For more information on UNICEF, visit its website at http://www.unicef.org