A. Executive Summary
The influx of Syrian refugees into Turkey has far surpassed initial projections. According to a recent survey conducted by the Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency (AFAD), the main Governmental agency responsible for the Syria operation, about 36 per cent of Syrian refugees in Turkey are accommodated in camps in 10 provinces located in the South and South East of Turkey, while the remaining 64per cent are residing in various cities across the country. The number of Syrian refugees in camps stands at over 202,0002. To date over 313,000 non-camp refugees have been registered, although the Government of Turkey (GoT) estimates that this number is significantly higher. Refugees living outside the camps face enormous challenges in accessing essential services and very often their living conditions are sub-standard. The GoT conducts registration and extends Temporary Protection to all Syrian arrivals.
Refugees residing in camps managed by AFAD are provided with food, shelter, education, basic services and medical assistance. Significant efforts are also being made at local levels to address the needs of the increasing numbers of the urban population through registration activities.
Arrivals of new refugees are expected to continue throughout 2014. Maintaining the same level of assistance in the camps and ensuring that those residing outside the camps are registered and have access to essential services, will pose major challenges to both the Turkish authorities and UN agencies. Additionally, this will also increase the economic and social burden on the host communities.
Turkey’s asylum system will be undergoing a significant transition period in 2014 when the newly established General Directorate of Migration Management (GDMM) will be taking over all proceedings related to foreigners in the country as foreseen in the Law on Foreigners and International Protection. This transition taking effect in April 2014 will make the GDMM sole authority in the asylum field. Like other refugees granted protection in Turkey, Syrians under the Temporary Protection (TP) will be under the competency of the GDMM. In its protection related functions, the GDMM will be in charge of registration, status determination, access to rights, and establishment of effective coordination among the relevant institutions, civil society and international organizations in response to the Syrian emergency.
While the main foundations of the TP regime will be retained, e.g. open door policy and assurances for non-refoulement, the legal framework applicable to Syrians will be re-visited in 2014 through a generic Regulation on temporary protection to be adopted as the Council of Ministers Regulation.
This Regional Response Plan (RRP) envisages assistance to both camp and non-camp Syrian refugees as well as affected host communities in 2014. Based on arrival trends and as foreseen by the GoT, the number of Syrian refugees in Turkey is expected to reach 1,000,000 by the end of 2014, with 300,000 in camps and 700,000 outside camps. Arrival rates, however, are subject to considerable fluctuation as they greatly depend on the security situation in Syria.
In light of the above planning figures, the financial requirements within the Turkey chapter of the RRP from January to December 2014 will amount to US$522,379,683. Costs related to the influx covered by the GoT have reached approximately US$2 billion.
UNHCR will continue to be the lead UN agency coordinating the response. The RRP highlights the planned activities of FAO, IOM, UNDP, UNFPA, UNHCR, UNICEF, and WFP in their respective areas of expertise and responsibility, with overall coordination support from the Office of the UN Resident Coordinator.