Togo: Flood Preparedness & Response Emergency Plan of Action (EPoA) DREF Operation n° MDRTG007

A. Situation analysis

Description of the disaster

Since July 2017, there have been torrential rains in the northern regions of the country, raising the level of the rivers in the south of the country, particularly the Mono River, which collects all the water. Rainfall had been recorded in the catchment area of the Nangbéto hydroelectric dam reservoir, since the beginning of the wet season in 2017, as confirmed by the forecasts of the Directorate General of National Meteorology of Togo. The consolidated forecasts on West Africa estimated excess rainfall that will evolve towards normal in the northern zone of Togo.

The Nangbéto dam signalled that its water retention capacity has been exceeded on 7 August, while forecasts were still showing abundant rainfall for the coming weeks. The dam authorities were planning releases that resulted in flooding in some villages, and put additional ones at risk of flooding downstream of the dam along the Mono River. There are 3,680 households or 16,060 population in 30 villages at risk of flooding.

The dam overflow started with a discharge rate of 680 m3 / s on August 23; the spills reached their peak on 22 September with a flow of 1200 m3 / s and dropped to 320 m3 on 26 September 2017.
As at 28 September, a total of 602 households or 3,612 people been affected. Among the villages bordering the Mono river 10 villages (Agbanakin, Atchamé, Togbavi, Togbagan, Azimé-Dossou,
Adamé, Gbandi, Gbandidi, Agbetiko and Handivi) have been flooded directly affecting more than 213 households (1,278 people). Another 389 households (2,334 people) in Agbanakin, have been marooned in their village. Accessibility to several localities is only possible by canoe or on foot. The number of affected people downstream is likely to further increase as the water flow continues in coming weeks.

Located in West Africa on the Gulf of Guinea coast, Togo has an area of 56,600 km2. It is bounded by Benin to the East, Ghana to the West, Burkina Faso to the North and the Atlantic Ocean to the South. The tropical climate is divided into two main areas: a Sudanese type area in the south with extensive productive land and a Sahel type area covering the northern half of the country with a shortage of fertile land. Togo's climate is tropical. The southern half has two wet seasons per year, from April to June and September to October. With 890 millimetres of annual rainfall, the coast is the driest region of the country.