By Andrew Brown
A decade ago, an entire community raced to higher ground as the Indian Ocean tsunami decimated their homes and livelihoods. See how one village tackled recovery – and built back better.
KOH LANTA, Thailand, 22 December 2014 – It’s been almost 10 years since the Indian Ocean tsunami hit the Thai island of Koh Lanta, on 26 December 2004.
Talking about it brings tears to Ampai Madsaron’s eyes. “It’s always at the back of my mind,” she says, “like a scar that doesn’t heal.”
“We just have to save our lives”
It is early in the morning, and Ampai’s husband Yunui is out fishing. She sits on a woven mat on the porch with her three sons Tanya, 18, Noppadol, 12, and Nattaporn, 9. Behind them, life jackets and fishing nets hang to dry. Ampai wears a black headscarf, embroidered with starbursts of blue, white and yellow. Koh Lanta is a predominantly Muslim area.
The Madsaron home is a wooden hut built on stilts over the sea to allow easy access for the family’s fishing boat. They earn around 1,000 baht (US$30) for a good day’s catch of fish, squid or crabs.
Their poor fishing village is totally dependent on the ocean – and it was hit hard by the tsunami. “I was on the hillside above the house when the sea rushed out and I saw the wave coming,” she remembers. “I had seen a Japanese documentary about tsunamis on TV, so I knew straight away what was happening. Some of my neighbours just stood there staring at the wave, but I shouted at them to run up the hill.”
Ampai counted seven waves in total. “The first two passed by offshore, then the third one hit our house,” she recalls. “The water came back down carrying boulders, and, by the end, our home was completely destroyed. There are around 100 houses in our village, and almost half of them were destroyed, along with many fishing boats.”
Everyone in Ampai’s village survived, thanks in part to her warning. “I was very afraid and desperately worried about my children,” she continues. “I was carrying my nephew, and he was crying as we ran up the hill. I told my neighbours not to worry about their homes or possessions – we just have to save our lives.”A community recovers
After the tsunami, the family stayed at an evacuation centre in the local school for a month, then moved to Ampai’s mother’s house further uphill while they rebuilt their own home. “It was a difficult time,” Ampai says. “We didn’t have enough rice to eat, and the shops raised their prices. People didn’t want to fish or eat seafood because there were still bodies in the sea.”
Ampai became a UNICEF focal point for her community. She was already a health volunteer with the nearby hospital and leader of the local women’s group. She worked with UNICEF to distribute food and supplies in her village, making sure that everybody got a fair share.
She also set up a business with other women drying and selling fish, with 30,000 baht seed funding from UNICEF. Within a few years, Ampai had increased the funds to 300,000 baht. “We used the seed funding to buy equipment like knives, wooden buckets and ice coolers, as well as salt and extra fish when we couldn’t catch enough,” she says. “UNICEF built a workshop where we could cut and dry the fish. We used some of the profits to support elderly and vulnerable villagers.”
A few months after the tsunami, the local school reopened. UNICEF restocked the library with schoolbooks and provided a motorcycle for the teachers so they could make home visits to remote families, particularly if their children didn’t show up for class. Ten years later, both the schoolbooks and motorbike are still in use.
For Ampai, her work with UNICEF was part of her usual approach to life and her community. “I like to help other people,” she explains. “It’s a great feeling when the whole village works together. I am grateful to UNICEF for helping me to have a good life, and for what they have done for our community.”
Child’s eye view
Tanya works at the local pier helping to moor boats. Although he was only 8 years old at the time of the tsunami, he also has strong memories of it.
“I was at home eating noodles with my little brother and looking out to sea,” he remembers. “When the tsunami came, I didn’t even realize it was a wave. It looked like a big cloud. But I heard my mother shouting at me to run away. Then I was very scared. I picked up my brother and ran up the hill.”
Tanya didn’t like living at his grandmother’s house after the tsunami, because it was so crowded with relatives. He recalls being happy to move home, once his parents’ house had been rebuilt. His younger brothers both want to be fishers like his father, but he hopes to take a vocational training course and become a mechanic.
He is proud of Ampai. “My mother is very smart,” Tanya says with a wide smile. “She started the women’s group and got help for our village after the tsunami. But she still has time to look after me and my brothers.”
Building back better
In the months and years after the tsunami, UNICEF supported children, families and communities across all the affected provinces of Thailand. We helped install new and better quality water and sanitation facilities in 121 schools and 71 early childhood development centres. The construction was carried out following consultations with children, parents and teachers, who identified it as their top priority.
We worked with teachers, parents and community members to develop early learning materials for children up to 6 years old. Lessons included exercises to help children express their feelings about the tsunami. We also trained nearly 400 teachers and caregivers in using these materials.
Since the tsunami, disaster risk reduction has become a regular part of UNICEF’s work across the Asia–Pacific region. There will always be earthquakes, typhoons, floods and tsunamis. Disaster risk reduction is about preventing these natural hazards from becoming humanitarian disasters that create human suffering and impact on children’s lives, for example through emergency drills in schools.
“We are much better prepared if there is ever another tsunami,” Ampai says. “There’s a siren in the municipal office. You can even hear it out at sea. We’ve done several emergency drills and have all our important documents ready in case we need to flee.”
Updated: 26 December 2014