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Summary of newly-reported viruses this week: Syria: seven new circulating vaccine derived poliovirus 2 (cVDPV2) cases reported, five cases from Mayadeen and one case from Boukamal districts, Deir Ez-Zor governorate, and one case from Thawra district, Raqqa governorate. Three new cVDPV2 positives from healthy children, two from Mayadeen and one from Bokamal districts, Deir Ez-Zor governorate. Pakistan: four new wild poliovirus 1 (WPV1) positive environmental samples, three reported in Sindh province, and one in Balochistan province. See country-specific sections for further details.
Wild poliovirus type 1 and Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus cases
Weekly country updates as of 4 October 2017
No new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases were reported in the past week. The total number of WPV1 cases for 2017 remains six. The most recent case in the country had onset of paralysis on 10 July, from Zabul province, neighbouring Kandahar province and Pakistan.
No new WPV1-positive environmental samples have been reported. Afghanistan’s 2017 total WPV1 environmental positive samples remains 10.
Preparations are underway for the implementation of vaccination campaigns in 22 high risk districts in the Southern Region during the first half of October. These will take place under enhanced supervision and monitoring from the regional and national level.
Read the latest polio update from Afghanistan to see information on cases, surveillance and vaccination campaigns.
No new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases were reported in the past week. The total number of WPV1 cases for 2017 remains five.
Four new wild poliovirus type 1 positive environmental samples were reported in the last week. Three samples are from Sindh province, two from Karachi Gadap district, and one from Karachi Landhi district. One sample was collected from Balochistan province, Loralai district. This latter sample is the first positive to be detected at Loralai since it became a sampling site in December last year.
Preparations are underway for a vaccination campaign next week targeting more than 3.5 million children aged less than five years in selected districts of four provinces and Federally Administered Tribal Areas, in response to the most recent polio case (Lakki Marwat, Khyber Pakhtoon) and positive environmental samples. The National Emergency Operation Centre is taking special measures to enhance supportive supervision and monitoring to ensure high quality vaccination during this vaccination round.
Read the latest polio update from Pakistan to see information on cases, surveillance and vaccination campaigns.
No new cases of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) were reported in the past week. The total number of WPV1 cases for 2016 remains four and no cases have been reported in 2017. The most recent case had onset of paralysis on 21 August 2016 in Monguno Local Government Area, Borno.
Nigeria continues to implement an emergency response to the detected WPV1 strain and circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) strains affecting the country (last detected in 2016).
Detection of polio cases in Nigeria underscores the risk posed by low-level undetected transmission and the urgent need to strengthen subnational surveillance.
The last stages of planning are underway for subnational immunisation days, scheduled for later this week. The intention is to provide protection to over 50% of children under the age of five nationwide.
In Northeast Nigeria, an emergency response team continues to use the polio infrastructure to monitor the recent cholera outbreak. Women who are volunteer community mobilisers have been particularly crucial in the response, distributing posters and leading education sessions on the importance of basic hygiene to prevent the spread of bacteria.
Lake Chad Basin
The detection of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) (Borno state, Nigeria in 2016) and circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) (Borno and Sokoto states in 2016) continue to pose a risk to the neighbouring countries of the Lake Chad basin.
Emergency outbreak response efforts continue across the Lake Chad basin, together with activities to fill subnational surveillance gaps across the region.
These activities include efforts to vaccinate children at markets, in internally displaced persons camps, and at international borders.
The next immunisation activities are scheduled for the coming days, using bOPV to vaccinate children aged 0 to 5 years in all countries in the Lake Chad Basin.
No new cases of type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) were reported this week in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DR Congo).
The total number of cVDPV2 cases this year is nine, in two separate outbreaks: in Haut Lomami province (seven cases, with onset of paralysis of the most recent case on 27 July); and in Maniema province (two cases with onset of paralysis on 26 March and 18 April, with an additional isolate detected in a healthy individual with sample collection on 2 May).
Outbreak response continues to take place, including use of monovalent oral polio vaccine type 2 (mOPV2) in line with internationally-agreed outbreak response protocols.
Following two successful mOPV2 rounds during June and July, mop up vaccination activities were completed on 16 September, with over 120,000 children under the age of five vaccinated against polio.
The next immunisation activities are scheduled for the end of October, using bOPV vaccine to immunise over 10 million children.
Surveillance and immunization activities are being strengthened in neighbouring countries.
The Middle East
In Syria, seven new type 2 circulating vaccine-derived polio (cVDPV2) cases have been reported this week. Five cases are from Mayadeen and one from Boukamal districts, Deir Ez-Zor governorate, and one case is from Thawra district, Raqqa governorate. The most recent case, in Boukamal, had paralysis onset on 5 August.
The bulk of all cases continue to be from Mayadeen, the epicentre of this outbreak.
This increases the current number of cases in this outbreak to 47. Onset of paralysis of these cases is between 3 March and 5 August.
Three new cVDPV2 environmental positives from healthy children have also been recorded, two from Mayadeen and one from Bokamal districts, Deir Ez-Zor governorate.
One of the three cVDPV2 positives has been isolated from stool samples collected from a healthy child in Damascus, as part of screening in place for IPDs from Deir Ez-Zor and Raqqa. The child, from Boukamal, Deir Ez-Zor, had samples collected on 19 August, the day of arrival. WHO and MoH will continue to take samples from healthy children in areas of Damascus with high numbers of IDPs, to ensure there is no wider circulation.
Following the national response plan, created in response to the outbreak, preparation for the second immunization round for Raqqa is ongoing. Newly accessible villages in Thawra district have been included in campaign plans. Community leaders in Raqqa have been engaged in all districts to assist in the monitoring of vaccination activities and to help facilitate the access of vaccination teams.
IPV vaccination continues at border points and at UNHCR registration points for unvaccinated children crossing from Syria into Lebanon. Plans are being finalized to administer IPV to children in informal settlements and in high risk sub-districts of Lebanon.
Read the latest polio update/situation report here.