Polio this week as of 13 September 2017

Report
from Global Polio Eradication Initiative
Published on 13 Sep 2017 View Original
  • New on polioeradication.org: Polio vaccines reach vulnerable children in hard to reach areas of Syria.

  • Following flooding in Benue, Nigeria, the World Health Organization has deployed its polio infrastructure across the state to strengthen disease prevention efforts.

  • Pakistan and Afghanistan plan to implement National Immunization Days during the second half of September.

  • Summary of newly-reported viruses this week: two new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) positive samples were confirmed this week, one located in Karachi, Pakistan, and the other in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. See country-specific sections for further details

Weekly country updates as of 13 September 2017

Afghanistan

No new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases were reported in the past week. The total number of WPV1 cases for 2017 remains six. The most recent case in the country had onset of paralysis on 10 July, from Zabul province, neighbouring Kandahar province and Pakistan.
The special targeted campaign has concluded in the 22 districts of southern Afghanistan. Post campaign monitoring is underway.
National immunisation days at the end of September will aim to vaccinate about 10 million children aged less than five years. Preparations continue to ensure the highest possible vaccination quality.
Read the latest polio update from Afghanistan to see information on cases, surveillance and vaccination campaigns.

Pakistan

No cases have been reported this week. The most recent case, from Karachi, Pakistan, had onset of paralysis on 11 August 2017. The total number of WPV1 cases for 2017 remains four.
Two new WPV1-positive environmental samples have been reported in Karachi and Rawalpindi districts, bringing the total WPV1 positives in 2017 to 75.
Provincial and Divisional Task Forces for polio eradication are performing the readiness review for the National Immunization Days planned next week (starting 18th September). Meeting of the Provincial Task Force Sindh Province (held on 14th September), chaired by the Chief Minister, reviewed the situation in Karachi and agreed for an action plan to improve the SIAs quality in Karachi.
Read the latest polio update from Pakistan to see information on cases, surveillance and vaccination campaigns.

Nigeria

No new cases of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) were reported in the past week. The total number of WPV1 cases for 2016 remains four and no cases have been reported in 2017. The most recent case had onset of paralysis on 21 August 2016 in Monguno Local Government Area (LGA), Borno.
Nigeria continues to implement emergency response to the detected WPV1 strain and circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) strains a ecting the country (last detected in 2016).
Detection of polio cases in Nigeria underscores the risk posed by low- level undetected transmission and the urgent need to strengthen subnational surveillance.
Planning is underway for the next set of subnational immunisation days, taking place at the beginning of October. The intention is to provide protection to over 50% of under 5s nationwide.
The health response to widespread flooding in Benue has been strengthened by polio infrastructure. Existing structures and local health workers are helping to intensify disease surveillance and reporting, assess potential infection sources, and engage communities in disease prevention. With 8,957 personnel involved in polio eradication activities in the state, it is hoped that these actions will considerably aid e orts to support victims of the flood.
In Borno, an emergency response team continues to use the polio infrastructure to react to the recent cholera outbreak.

Lake Chad Basin

The detection of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) (Borno state, Nigeria in 2016) and circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) (Borno and Sokoto states in 2016) continue to pose a risk to the neighbouring countries of the Lake Chad basin and hence a regional outbreak response plan is being implemented.
Emergency outbreak response e orts continue across the Lake Chad basin, together with activities to fill subnational surveillance gaps across the region.
Detailed planning is underway for the next immunisation activities, scheduled for early October.
Read the latest polio update on the Lake Chad Basin to see information on cases, surveillance and vaccination campaigns.

Central Africa

No new cases of type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) were reported in the past week in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DR Congo). The total number of cVDPV2 cases this year remains eight, in two separate outbreaks: in Haut Lomami province (six cases, with onset of paralysis of the most recent case on 20 June); and in Maniema province (two cases with onset of paralysis on 26 March and 18 April, with an additional isolate detected in a healthy individual with sample collection on 2 May).
Confirmation of additional cases is not unexpected at this time. Outbreak response is taking place, including use of monovalent oral polio vaccine type 2 (mOPV2) in line with internationally-agreed outbreak response protocols, targeting more than 750,000 children under the age of five across the two provinces.
The first mOPV2 round was implemented on 27-29 June in the two a ected provinces; and the second mOPV2 round ran from 13-15 July in Haut Lomami and 20-22 July in Maniema. The third mOPV2 round took place in Haut Katanga, Mukanga and Kunda provinces from 31 July to 2 September.

The Middle East

In Syria, no new cases were reported in the past week, maintaining the total number of cases in this outbreak at 39. Onset of paralysis of these cases is between 3 March and 13 July. The bulk of all cases are from Mayadeen, the epicentre of this outbreak.
Final lab results are pending for an additional 4 poliovirus type-2 (PV2) isolates (2 from Mayadeen and 1 from Boukamal districts, Deir Ez-Zor governorate, and 1 from Thawra district, Raqqa governorate).
Confirmation of additional cases is not unexpected at this time and would not change the operational situation, as outbreak response plans are being finalized and implemented, in line with internationally-agreed outbreak response protocols.
As part of this, the first mOPV2 round in Deir-Ez-Zour was successfully carried out between 22-26 July. Independent post- campaign monitoring reflected coverage of 88.4% (based on caregiver recall).
The second immunization round for Deir-Ez-Zor governorate was completed on 28 August. Monovalent OPV2 was provided for children between 0-59 months of age, and inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) for children 2-23 months. A total of 3,745 under 5 Iraqi refugee children were vaccinated in 29 villages the last two days of the round (extension days).
Preparations continue for the second immunization round in Raqqa.
Plans are being finalized to mitigate the risks of further spread from the outbreak zone to neighbouring areas and countries, including immunization of at-risk populations in northwest Syria, Turkey and Lebanon.
Read the latest polio update/situation report here.