1. The present report is the fifty-ninth submitted pursuant to paragraph 17 of Security Council resolution 2139 (2014), paragraph 10 of resolution 2165 (2014), paragraph 5 of resolution 2191 (2014), paragraph 5 of resolution 2258 (2015), paragraph 5 of resolution 2332 (2016), paragraph 6 of resolution 2393 (2017), paragraph 12 of resolution 2401 (2018) and paragraph 6 of resolution 2449 (2018), in the last of which the Council requested the Secretary-General to provide a report on a regular basis, at least every 60 days, on the implementation of the resolutions by all parties to the conflict in the Syrian Arab Republic.
2. The information contained herein is based on data available to agencies of the United Nations system and obtained from the Government of the Syrian Arab Republic and other relevant sources. Data from agencies of the United Nations system on their humanitarian deliveries have been reported for December 2018 and January 2019.
II. Major developments
Key points: December 2018 and January 2019
1. Serious concerns persisted about the protection of civilians in the Hajin area of south-eastern Dayr al-Zawr Governorate, where military operations against Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant continued, and about the well-being of some 25,000 people displaced from this area to the Hawl camp during the reporting period.
2. The humanitarian situation in the makeshift settlement at Rukban continued to deteriorate, with deployment of additional humanitarian assistance to the area becoming increasingly critical. By the end of the reporting period, final preparations were being made for a major aid convoy to Rukban to provide comprehensive assistance to some 42,000 people.
3. Flooding and severe cold compounded the suffering of millions of people in need throughout much of the country, with several camps for internally displaced persons in the north-east and north-west experiencing heavy flooding, resulting in the destruction of shelters and secondary displacement of already extremely vulnerable people.
4. Concerns around the risk of military escalation in Idlib grew, with changes in control over the course of the reporting period further complicating the operating environment for humanitarian organizations. The suspension of funding by some donors for stabilization activities, linked to concerns following changes in control, reduced the coverage of health services in some areas in the north-west of the country.
5. Attacks on educational and medical facilities continued to be reported and verified by humanitarian organizations, with four attacks on schools and four attacks on hospitals confirmed during the reporting period.
6. United Nations humanitarian agencies and partners continued to reach millions of people in need throughout the Syrian Arab Republic. Humanitarian assistance provided by United Nations agencies included food for an average of 3.37 million people in need each month and nearly 3 million health and medical treatments to people in the country.
7. In several areas that shifted control in 2018, including locations in eastern Ghouta, south-eastern Idlib, northern rural Homs and the southern part of the Syrian Arab Republic, sustained and predictable humanitarian access remained challenging owing to a number of constraints, including administrative restrictions and insecurity.
8. The United Nations and non-governmental organizations continued to deliver life-saving assistance to more than 700,000 people each month in the north-eastern part of the Syrian Arab Republic, including recent arrivals in sites for internally displaced persons. The uncertain operating environment, including in the context of recent announcements about possible adjustments to military deployments in the north-east of the country, raised concerns among humanitarian organizations.