WFP Sudan Monthly Overview - January 2000

WFP - SUDAN, EMOP 6215.00
1.1 January 2000 Highlights

Scope of assistance: About 637,047 vulnerable children, women and men living in Sudan were provided with 3,961 MT of WFP food during January. The food distributed represents 60% of the planned food requirements for the month. The beneficiaries reached were 62% of the planned target for the month. The main factor behind the lower than planned achievement was mainly insecurity in Unity/Western Upper Nile and Jonglei regions which prevented access to thousands of targeted beneficiaries. Further, insecurity in Equatoria hampered food delivery to several areas in Torit and Kapoeta counties, where food needs are great.

Emergency Operation Approved: WFP has approved an emergency operation (EMOP 6215) to provide relief food during year 2000 to over two million Sudanese who will not be able to access or produce enough food to meet their basic needs due to war and climatic calamities. The food aid will help beneficiaries combat hunger, preserve and replace productive assets, as well as diversify livelihood strategies, thereby improving longer-term food security. WFP plans to provide 103,453 MT of food aid to a monthly average of 1.7 million needy people in southern Sudan, the transitional zone, displaced camps in Khartoum and Kassala, and other non-OLS areas. The food needs are based on the OLS Annual Needs Assessments and FAO/WFP Crop and Food Supply Assessments that were carried out in October/November 1999. Taking into consideration unused commodities and cash pledges from 1999, the uncovered net requirements for 2000 amount to 55,609 MT of food at the total WFP cost of US$ 58,144,198.

1.2 January 2000 Statistics

A: Food Distribution by Region

Details of the table below indicating regional food distribution are contained in Section 2.3.1.

(*) 198 MT were planned to be distributed to 25,000 beneficiaries in the supplementary and therapeutic feeding centres. This number of beneficiaries is incorporated in the caseloads for the individual regions of the northern sector.

B: Distributions according to Mode of Delivery

The chart below shows, food prepositioned by barge is almost exhausted, and WFP is relying on air and road to reach all beneficiaries in Sudan. The last successful barge convoy was mounted, along the Sobat river, in August 1999. A small quantity of food was prepositioned in Malakal in September 1999 by a convoy destined for Juba. However, the convoy could not proceed further due to insecurity in Unity State.

C. Origin and destination of distributions

(*) Food originating from Kosti by barge/road, Port Sudan by road and Khartoum/El Obeid by air.
(**) Food originating from Lokichoggio by road/air and Koboko by road.

2. Operational Report

2.1 Security

GoS and the SPLM announced a 3-month extension of the ceasefire covering parts of southern Sudan. The SPLM stated that the ceasefire extended to southern Bahr el Ghazal, Unity/Western Upper Nile (Bentiu and Panaru/Pariang areas) and Central Upper Nile (Bor, Fangak, Waat, Akobo and Pibor areas). The GoS ceasefire covers "all the areas of operations" in the south, starting on 15 January. A fifth round of the Inter-governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) peace talks between the Government of Sudan and the SPLM/A started in Nairobi on 15 January. No joint, cease-fire agreement was reached between GoS and the SPLM during the IGAD talks. Further peace talks have been tabled for February 2000.

Unity/Upper Nile

Two members of staff from CARE were killed in Unity State during the reporting period, while one other employee and a fourth person were reported missing. The four-man team was driving in a truck from Bentiu to Mayoum on January 2 to open a new health clinic. They were last seen alive by CARE sources 30 miles from Bentiu. A search and rescue team comprised of personnel from CARE, the UN and the government of Sudan were dispatched to the area. The truck and the body of Mekki El Ekheir Mekki were found on January 5 along the road to Mayoum. The body of Ibrahim Ishag Abaker was found a few miles away.

The security situation in the state remained tense throughout the month, with restricted movement and general unease. A WFP vehicle in Rubkona was hit by a stray bullet. The population in Bentiu and Rubkona is experiencing food insecurity due to the failure of the agricultural season combined with ongoing conflict. WFP staff in Bentiu distributed food to some of the beneficiaries during a rapid intervention.

Insecurity in Bieh State, Jonglei, as well as Latjor and Leech states in Upper Nile hampered WFP operations during January. Of particular note was the displacement of population from Kiech Kuon and nearby Mading due to bombing incidents. Food distribution in Mading was interrupted for a day and resumed when the population returned the following day. Kiech Kuon was placed on security level "tense" following the bombing. A WFP team escaped unhurt when Mogok in Phou State, Jonglei, was bombed on 17 January. Pagil in the same state was bombed on 18 January, resulting in the cancellation of planned food intervention activities.


In Eastern Equatoria, the road between New Cush and Natinga in Kapoeta County remained closed throughout the month due to insecurity. The lack of road access is hampering delivery of food aid to several areas of Torit and Kapoeta counties, where significant food needs exist.


A fire broke out in the village of Koboko (Uganda) in mid-month, threatening 1,200 MT of WFP food in nearby stores. WFP, in collaboration with other agencies, eventually brought the fire under control. WFP Uganda distributed emergency food rations to local inhabitants left destitute and without shelter by the fire.


About 60 Turkana tukuls (homes) in Lokichoggio (Kenya) were destroyed in a fire on 13 January. A second fire broke out the following week, close to the ICRC Lopiding hospital. Both fires were successfully brought under control. Insecurity in Lokichoggio town resulted in the cancellation of a number of flights in and out of Lokichoggio airport on 17 January. The security situation in Lokichoggio remained tense throughout the month. Insecurity is linked to some contractual arrangements between UNICEF/OLS and a local company providing security and some casual labour to OLS agencies.

2.2 Logistics

2.2.1 Air Operations

Food deliveries by air during January amounted to 3,701 MT. Of the total, 58% (1,449 MT) was delivered from southern sector locations, while 42% (2,253 MT) originated from the northern sector air bases. The food was delivered by 7 cargo aircraft: between 3 C-130 and two Buffalo aircraft from Lokichoggio, and one C-130 Hercules and one Ilyushin-76 from the northern sector bases. Additionally, locally chartered air companies were used to airfreight food from Khartoum to Juba and from El Obeid to Wau.

Staff from WFP, NGOs and OLS contracted air operators participated in a three-day workshop in Lokichoggio on the transportation of dangerous good by air. A representative from the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) discussed the correct ways of transporting dangerous good internationally, as well as the legal implications of contravening ICAO and Government of Kenya regulations on this matter. The oil firm, Caltex, made a presentation on the safe use and transportation of drummed liquids such as Jet A-1 fuel.

A proposal for the lease of Lokichoggio airport was received from the Kenya Airports Authority (KAA) in late January. Discussions are ongoing between WFP and the KAA over the landing and other fees, the division of responsibilities for security and the management of different aspects of the airport between the two organisations.

2.2.2 Road Operations

Road deliveries of relief food commodities amounted to 1,432 MT during January, about the same level as in December. Out of the total deliveries, 971 MT of food was dispatched from the southern sector and 461 MT from the northern sector. Plans were finalised during the month for the prepositioning of food by road to northern sector locations. A total 4,755 MT of food will be transported in March and April. Most of the food will be delivered to the transitional zone (West and South Kordofan). A further 2,543 MT of food will be delivered by road from Kosti and El Obeid to southern sector locations in the Nuba Mountains, where distributions will be carried out between May-August.

Conflict has resulted in the closure of roads to Bentiu, making food deliveries to the town difficult. Food dispatched from El Obeid to Bentiu was positioned in Rubkona, from where it is being transferred to Bentiu by ferry. However, the ferry broke down during the month and some food (37 MT) remained in Rubkona awaiting availability of alternative transport. Construction of a new road between Rubkona and Bentiu is ongoing and may result in the cancellation of the ferry in favor of road next month.

Local authorities in Hejlig detained two trucks loaded with 80 MT of WFP food for 10 days. The commercial trucks were transporting food aid from El Obeid to Rubkona for distribution to needy persons in Unity State. WFP subsequently consulted with relevant authorities in Khartoum to secure release of the trucks.

WFP request offers for road transportation from Koboko into South Sudan. Among the good to be transported are 600 MT of UNICEF seed. This is in line with the Memorandum of Understanding between WFP and UNICEF which identifies WFP as the agency responsible for facilitating the movement of UNICEF goods within Sudan from Koboko. This activity is in line with WFP’s goals of facilitating local purchases of seed in order to promote use of indigenous seed varieties, which in turn encourages longer-term food security.

Repairs to the Eastern Equatoria road corridor started up again on 11 January, after a lull due to insecurity and inaccessibility following heavy rains. By the end of the month, one kilometre of side drain re-instatement remained to be completed on the 45 km long Narus to Natinga section. Progress on the 22 km Natinga to New Cush sections remained slow due to the difficult terrain.

Twelve WFP staff underwent three days of training on the use of C-tunnels for storage of food aid in the field. Staff were trained on how to transport, erect and maintain C-tunnels to ensure safe storage of food aid. The C-tunnels, with a storage capacity of 140 MT per unit, will replace storage cocoons that were used in 1999 in the southern sector. A C-tunnel is a ventilated, non-hermetically sealed space which allows easy access to the stored commodities, and is thus a more appropriate form of storage for WFP in the field where food stores are rapidly deployed to areas of need. In contrast, the cocoons are hermetically-sealed units, particularly suited to the storage of seeds, and typically designed for longer-term storage.

2.2.3 Barge Operations

A security assessment of the Nile river corridor confirmed that some locations, particularly in Unity/Western Upper Nile and in the upper Sobat river basin remained insecure and highly volatile due to factional realignment. Consequently, barge convoys will be delayed until further security investigations have been carried out. The last WFP barge convoy was mounted on the Sobat corridor in August 1999. No barge convoy could be undertaken to Juba since July 1999 due to persistent insecurity.

2.3. Programme

2.3.1 Regional Food Distribution

Bahr el Ghazal

During January, WFP distributed 2,189 MT of food to 411,338 beneficiaries in Bahr el Ghazal. The food distributed was 89% of planned targets and reached 90% of the targeted number of beneficiaries, mainly in Aweil East and Gogrial counties and Wau town. The lower than planned achievement was mainly due to delayed distributions in Wau and Aweil. The delay in reaching all beneficiaries was caused by the necessity of issuing new ration cards to the IDPs in Wau and surrounding camps. Food distribution to those not reached during January was conducted in early February. Beneficiaries in Wau during January included 4,888 children in an emergency school-feeding programme. The pupils comprised 1,941 girls and 2,947 boys in seven primary schools. In collaboration with partner NGOs, among them CARE, MSF-Holland, ACF and GLRA, food aid was also provided to inpatients and vulnerable persons, such as expectant and nursing mothers. Admissions at the Agok Leprosarium which is managed by GLRA declined during January, indicating that patients were responding to outpatient treatment and their nutritional status was improving. No children were admitted for therapeutic feeding at the ACF centre during the month, indicating improved nutritional status among the IDPs. Through partner NGO Enfant du Monde, WFP provided food to 80 children attending a psychosocial support programme in Wau for separated children and orphans.

Aweil East County: WFP has allotted food aid to 100 IDP households living around the MDM feeding centre in Akuem to assist them return to their home area in Nyamlell. This relief food will facilitate their return to their homes in time for the upcoming cultivation season, thereby helping these households to regain their food security.


WFP distributed 501 MT of food to 37,942 beneficiaries in Equatoria during January, representing 47% and 18% respectively of targeted plans. The main reason behind the lower than expected achievement was the revision last November of targeted beneficiaries in Juba and surrounding areas due to improved targeting, thus reducing the number of those in need of food aid. Beneficiaries provided with food aid during January included 4,723 vulnerable persons such as the elderly and disabled in Juba town. Targeted beneficiaries in southern sector locations received a two-month ration in late November and December 1999, reducing the needs for the month of January. Insecurity along the Natinga to New Cush road also severely hampered operations during the month. Food distribution in Kwauto payam, Kapoeta County, were temporarily suspended due to disagreement with the County Secretary over the quantity of food aid to be delivered to the area in the months to come. The matter was resolved at the Lokichoggio-level.

White Nile

In collaboration with MSF-Holland, WFP provided food aid to 895 in-patients at Um Kuraa. The beneficiaries are receiving treatment for Kala Azer (Visceral Leishmaniasis) which is caused by a sand fly that live Acacia trees. The major form of transmission is from human to fly to human. Once bitten it takes from 2–6 months to develop the disease (WHO:/96.40) At onset, a patient can die within three weeks if no treatment is availed. The signs and symptoms are severe malnutrition (BMI <16 or / WFH< 60%), enlarged spleen and high fever. Men are more prone but as the disease becomes endemic, all population groups are affected especially children between the age of 5-15 years. Kala Azer is seasonal and peaks between September and December. Kala Azer is curable and treatment is complete in 30 days. Apart from Gedaref, other Kala Azer sites in Sudan are Kassala, Singa, Sennar along the rivers of Atbara, Rahab and Blue Nile on the border with Ethiopia. Other areas are in Unity/Western Upper Nile (Bentiu, Malakal) and Kapoeta in Equatoria.

Unity/Upper Nile/Jonglei

A total of 186,472 beneficiaries in the region received 1,213 MT of relief food during the month. Those reached were 52% of the planned target, while the food distributed was 63% of planned requirements. The lower than planned achievement was due to a variety of factors including lack of access due to insecurity, a temporary suspension of activities in RASS areas and a shortage of passenger aircraft that restricted staff movement in the field. The flight suspension was lifted after a week when RASS deferred a decision to increase permit fees.

Unity/Western Upper Nile: Based on the findings of a nutrition survey showing a global malnutrition rate of 26% (above the 15% cut-off rate), WFP planned to distribute full rations to beneficiaries in Bentiu and surrounding areas. However, food distribution activities were hindered by insecurity and difficulties in delivering food to the town. Selective feeding programmes were put on hold after CARE suspended operations following the killing of its staff members in mid January. WFP is consulting with partners on supplying an additional blanket supplementary feeding ration to all under-five IDP children.

Upper Nile: In Malakal institutional feeding was provided to 226 beneficiaries in-patients and malnourished persons in supplementary feeding programmes. Emergency food assistance was also provided to 408 girls and 138 boys at a primary school at Obel 1 IDP camp. A disaster management team for northern sector locations was formed during the month to coordinate response to crises.

Jonglei: WFP distributed 128 MT of food to 8,862 war-affected beneficiaries in Bor town. The distribution was coordinated by WFP and the local relief committee. A committee of 15 women assisted in the distribution process. The food security situation for IDPs in Bor town is precarious as they have no access to agricultural land and rely on kinship support, supplementing their diets with wild foods and fish. The IDPs have not been accessed for relief food since July 1999 due to insecurity and the suspension of food deliveries by river barge.

2.3.2 Assessments, Surveys and Monitoring

An update of the 1999 southern sector Annual Needs Assessment (ANA) will be released in early February. The ANA "Update No. 1 - January 2000" reveals a total food aid deficit throughout the southern sector of around 62,104 MT. Food needs in WFP operational areas amount to 53,832 MT. Should on-going food economy assessments reveal marked differences between the actual food security on the ground, and the original picture outlined in the 1999 ANA completed in November 1999, WFP would consider carrying out a budget revision later in the year.

White Nile

About 50% of the IDPs who have been engaged in seasonal employment in agricultural schemes have returned to their families in the IDP camps in Kosti. The other 50% are still engaged in the sorghum harvest and are expected to return to the IDPs camps in Kosti in March 2000. The working population of the two camps, Gos es Salam and Laya, represents 74% of the total population of 44,000.

Findings of a joint WFP/GoS assessment conducted in November 1999 revealed that the areas of sesame cultivation in the state had increased by 30% (645,340 feddans in1999 from 497,660 feddans in 1998), while sorghum areas had declined by 47% (928,620 feddan in1999 compared to 1,765,905 feddans in 1998). This shift from sorghum was a result of the high sesame prices during 1998/99 harvest.

Humanitarian agencies operational in White Nile continued planning for the proposed relocation of IDPs from Laya and Gos es Salam to new surveyed sites where they will be allocated agriculture land. UN Agencies, NGOs and GoS also reviewed intervention plans for better coordination in order to avoid duplication of activities during 2000.

Post-distribution Monitoring

Southern Sector: In January 2000, WFP distributed food in 68 locations, of which 36 (53%) were in Bahr el Ghazal, 14 (21 %) in Upper Nile, 9 (13 %) in Jonglei and 9 (13%) in the Equatoria. The food aid was channelled through general food distributions and more targeted interventions such as feeding centres and food-for-work schemes. The size of the food ration varied from 25-75%, based on the findings of on-going food economy assessments. Redistribution was recorded at 9 (19%) of the distribution sites, sometimes voluntary, but mostly obligatory when carried out under the supervision of chiefs and sub-chiefs. Voluntary redistribution occurred between the targeted beneficiary and their family members, relatives or neighbours. The amount of food redistributed varied from one location to another. For instance, Ayuang (Gogrial County), recorded the lowest redistribution at 3.8 kg of food (15%) out of 25 kg of food distributed. In contrast, in Mangok (Aweil West County), redistribution was 16.6 kg (72%) out of 23 kg of total food distributed to the household. WFP suspended further distributions in Mangok until the issue is clarified. Post-distribution monitoring was not possible in parts of Upper Nile due to insecurity.

Redistribution of relief food in the form of voluntary sharing was also noted in previous monthly reports during 1999. Following the recommendations of the Mapel conference in May 1999, WFP is now giving greater flexibility to Local Relief Committees in deciding how to distribute the amount of food aid allocated to a particular location in an attempt to stop all organised redistribution.

Use of food aid: The WFP food ration retained by the household was mainly consumed directly by its members. Food aid not directly consumed was either traded or exchanged. Limited quantities of food aid were put to other uses e.g. income generation activities such as beer brewing.

Northern Sector: An analysis of post distribution monitoring for the period September - December 1999 was carried out during the month. The analysis covered 19 post-distribution monitoring reports from 446 households in Equatoria, Kassala, Wau, Ed Daein and Kosti. The analysis indicates that 95% of all beneficiaries collected their rations directly while 5% received it indirectly through relatives. 3% of the beneficiaries who did not attend the distribution included the elderly, the sick and nursing mothers. 2% of the targeted beneficiaries did not receive food due to missing ration cards. The majority of beneficiaries with missing ration cards are from Eastern Bank camp in Wau, where insecurity is high. WFP has taken up the issue of stolen ration cards with the local authorities both in Wau and Khartoum.

The analysis revealed that 87% of the food distributed was consumed within the household. Some 5% of the food was bartered for other food commodities while 7% was given as kinship support. Sharing food with relatives and friends is a traditional practice in Sudan. This practice is considered a good coping mechanism in that households expect to receive food from relatives or neighbours at a later date and particularly during the difficult time. However, due to sharing, 71% of the families indicated that the food lasted for 14 - 21 days instead of the planned 30 days.

2.3.3 Nutrition

Bahr el Ghazal

Aweil West County: CONCERN completed a nutritional survey in the payams of Gomjuer, Ayat and Malual West in November 1999 and found a global malnutrition rate of 10.4% (of which 3.1% was severe) among under-fives. The situation was worse within the 6-29 months age group, at a global malnutrition rate of 15.3% (of which 4.6% was severe).

Rumbek County: Five centres in Akot payam are conducting a weekly health education programme targeting women and children. The programme is supported by Tearfund, which closed its feeding centre in Billing in late October 1999. Tearfund currently has six SFCs and one TFC in Malualkon, Aweil East County. As from early December 1999, 21 children are being treated in the TFC in Malualkon down from 32 recorded in November 1999. WFP carried out a food-for-work scheme in Billing, and a general food aid distribution targeting over 17,000 beneficiaries in Malualkon in January. During a recent visit by WFP to Akuem, 268 beneficiaries were noted to have received food aid through the feeding centre, down from 308 persons in December 1999.

Unity/Western Upper Nile

Bentiu: WFP together with CARE and UNICEF undertook a nutrition survey in Bentiu during December 1999. The objective of the survey was to determine the nutrition status of the beneficiaries, explain the causes of and identify the groups at highest risk of malnutrition, thereby estimating the number of people needing assistance. The review is to act as baseline information during insecurity and be used in making recommendations for programme implementation. The survey found a high rate of malnutrition amongst children in Bentiu (26.3%), the major cause of which was inadequate dietary intake. Relief food has been erratic over the past 5 months due to insecurity. The rate of malnutrition was found to be higher amongst IDPs (51%) than residents (12%) and one in every two IDP children was malnourished. Relief food was found to constitute 76% of IDP intake. Among IDPs in residential areas, malnutrition affected all age groups with no distinction between boys and girls. Overall, 41% of all children were in supplementary feeding programs. A greater number of local residents are in SFP than IDPs, which in part explained the difference in nutrition status. Water and sanitation facilities were found adequate. CARE and WFP provides food to four CARE feeding centres with a capacity for 500 people.

The review recommended that full ration as well as supplementary feeding be provided for six months to prevent further deterioration of nutritional status. Since IDPs are highly mobile in the search for food, adequate food would help concentrate their presence in Bentiu, where other health services are also available.

A follow-up rapid survey conducted during January revealed that global malnutrition remained high, at 17.5%. However, no severe cases were observed in the sample group of 40 children. Compared to the December survey, returnees showed a slightly better nutrition status (17.5%) compared to those in Bentiu (26.3%). However, it remains above the threshold of 15%. The disease prevalence among children was similar and comparable to earlier findings at 25% for malaria, diarrhoea and chest infections. Other diseases included scabies, eye infection and measles. It was noted that none of the children had been vaccinated.


Bor County: A nutritional survey completed by MEDAIR in southern Bor County in early December 1999 found a global malnutrition rate of 21.7% (using Z-scores based on WFH) of which 2.1% was severe. WFP is closely monitoring the food security situation in the area, to determine whether the poor nutritional status of the county is due to health-related problems rather than an absolute food deficit. WFP and MEDAIR are finalising plans to investigate the matter.

2.3.4 Other Food Distributions

An awareness raising campaign continued among community leaders in northern Bahr el Ghazal about WFP’s food-for-seed exchanges scheduled between January and March 2000. WFP aims to exchange 636 MT of food aid for 305 MT of surplus seeds in Gogrial, Wau, Aweil East and Rumbek counties in Bahr el Ghazal and Phou and Bieh states in Jonglei. This seed will be redistributed through NGOs and local counterparts to seed-less farmers. An estimated 61,000 households will benefit from the scheme. These measures will help increase food production and encourage local seed varieties, thereby promoting longer-term food security. Partners involved in the schemes include Save the Children (UK), NCA, BYDA, Tearfund, OXFAM-GB and RASS. In 1999, WFP successfully swapped 522 MT relief food for local seeds.

2.3.5 Food Pipeline

The southern sector operation is exploring a loan of cereals from another WFP programme in the region. This is due to low levels of cereals in the Lokichoggio pipeline. A shortage of cereals is expected in February and March. In the northern sector, a cereal shortage is expected at the beginning of June. However, if loan repayments of 5,005 MT to other WFP projects are postponed, the EMOP pipeline break could be averted until the first week of July. Available stocks of salt will last until March. There are no expected arrivals of this commodity to date.

2.3.6 Gender Related Activities

South Darfur: IDP women from Ed Daein conducted an exhibition of handicrafts at the town youth centre. The handicrafts were produced during training in mid 1999 that was supported by WFP. About 50 women from the host community attended the three-month tailoring course which aimed at equipping the women, mainly heads of households such as widows, with new skills for income-generation. WFP provided food rations to the women during the training.

Khartoum: The UN Gender Task Force (UNGTF) commenced plans for commemoration of the International Women’s Day, which will be held in March. The UN Sudan gender group plans to utilise the day to raise awareness and promote the ratification by GoS of the Convention for the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). The UNGTF comprises representatives from UNFPA, UNDP, UNHCU, WFP, UNHCR, UNICEF, WHO and the Office of the UN Resident Coordinator. In its endeavour to promote women’s status in Sudan, the UNGTF liaises with the Women Desk in the Human Rights and Humanitarian Law Department of the Ministry of Justice, and the Women in Development Committee in the Ministry of Social Planning.

The UNGTF is currently working on a database mapping gender related projects in the country. The database, with input from UN Agencies and partners, is a tool to enhance co-ordination in programming and implementing gender issues, while maximising available resources. WFP’s Vulnerability Analysis and Mapping (VAM) unit is working closely with the Task Force regarding the database. Another UNGTF initiative is joint training to UN staff and partners on gender issues.

Several activities have been planned during the year to promote women’s rights and advocate for the eradication of harmful traditional practices. A key activity will be a study of women-discriminating practices and laws in Sudanese legislation to advocate for its annulment within the boundaries of the Constitution. Awareness sessions on harmful traditional practices and nutritional taboos will be organised by UNDP and WFP. Special effort will be given to advocate for the eradication of female genital mutilation.

2.3.7 Training

Lokichoggio: A total of 13 WFP field staff and two SCF-UK staff participated in an introductory food economy workshop in Lokichoggio. Participants discussed the different food economy zones of southern Sudan, food sources, information-gathering techniques such as PRA and ration calculations. The training involved a six-day field exercise in Boma. A nutritionist from the Secretariat of the UN Sub-committee on Nutrition in Geneva who was at the training worked with WFP to identify links between the food economy approach and nutritional issues.

WFP field staff provided refresher training to Local Relief Committee members in Beneshowa, Kiech Kuon, Pagak and Mading in Latjor State, Upper Nile, on their roles and responsibilities in managing the allocation and distribution of WFP food aid.

Khartoum: A Country Office/sub-office workshop was held during the month. Attended by heads of sub-offices, the workshop discussed strategies to streamline operations and improve coordination between the sub-offices and the Country Office. Among other topics discussed was nutritional monitoring, WFP’s Commitments to Women, beneficiary targeting and assessments. The workshop involved 35 members of staff.

Wild Foods: The first in a series of eighteen workshops examining the potential of indigenous wild food plants in southern Sudan was held in Rumbek County, Bahr el Ghazal. The three day workshop was facilitated by WFP, CRS and USAID for staff from WFP, CRS, LWF, Oxfam, Malteser, Tearfund and representatives from the SPLM, local teachers, the Catholic Diocese of Rumbek and community representatives. Highlights included revisiting and developing of laws concerning the protection of communal resources; developing an educational curriculum to include indigenous plants; domesticating and marketing, especially for women, of uncultivated food plants; and general awareness raising about the value of these plants and the need to protect them. Six WFP field staff also attended a wild food plants workshop held in Akak (Twic County), Bahr el Ghazal.

3. Other Developments During the Month

Immigration Procedures at Lokichoggio

WFP received a general approval on 11 February from the Kenyan Immigration Department for the issuance of entry visas to Kenya for its Sudanese field staff. The agreement between OLS and Kenyan Immigration covers southern Sudanese working for OLS agencies (but with no valid travel documents) and entering Kenya on business.

WFP/NGO Collaboration

Letters of Agreement, upon which WFP/NGO collaboration are based, were finalised during January. At the same time, WFP staff visited NGO activity sites in order to assess the capacity of NGOs to implement food for work activities and other community rehabilitation projects, particularly those benefiting women.


Media: Journalists visiting WFP operations in southern Sudan included Peter Mass, from Outdoor Magazine and Andrew England from the Scotland on Sunday and Daily Mail newspapers.

Donor Representatives: During the month, WFP staff in Lokichoggio briefed the US Ambassador to Kenya, Mr Johnny Carson, the US Government’s Special Envoy for Sudan, Mr Harry Johnston, as well as Mr Mark Clark from the US Embassy in Nairobi and Mr Paul McDermott from USAID. Others included Mr Brian Agland and Ms Irene Marre from AUSAID, Mr Lutz Salzman, head of the EC delegation in Kenya as well as Mr Jan Van Brussels, ECHO Flight Coordinator. WFP staff also met with a USAID delegation from Washington on 17 January which included Ms Vivian Lowery-Derryck, Assistant Administrator for Eastern Africa and Mr Jim Anderson, Director of the East Africa Bureau, who visited Nairobi, Lokichoggio and southern Sudan during a mission to the Horn of Africa region.

Abbreviations and Acronyms
Radda Barnen
Action Contre la Faim
Adventist Development and Relief Agency
Cooperation for Assistance and Relief Everywhere
Commission for Refugees
Coordinating Committee for Voluntary Services
Catholic Relief Services
corn-soya blend
dried skim milk
Emergency operation
Food Economy Analysis Unit
German Leprosy Relief Association
Government of Sudan
Humanitarian Aid Commission (GoS)
Intermediate Technologies Development Group
International Committee of the Red Cross
Internally Displaced Person
International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies
Inter-Governmental Authority on Development
Lutheran World Federation
Medecins du Monde
Medical Emergency Relief International
Medecins sans Frontieres
metric tonne
Norwegian Church Aid
non-governmental organisation
Norwegian People’s Aid
UN Office for the Coordinator of Humanitarian Affairs
Operation Lifeline Sudan
Oral rehydration salts
Oxford Committee for Famine Relief
Post-distribution monitoring
Participatory Rapid Appraisal
Save the Children Fund - Sweden
Relief Association for Southern Sudan (SSDF-affiliated)
Sudan Council of Churches
Save the Children Fund
supplementary feeding programme
Sudanese Popular Committee for Relief and Rehabilitation
Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army
Sudanese Red Crescent
Sudan Relief and Rehabilitation Association (SPLM/A- affiliated)
South Sudan Defence Force
Technical Committee on Humanitarian Assistance
therapeutic feeding programme
United Nations
United Nations Humanitarian Coordination Unit
United Nations Children’s Fund
World Food Programme
World Vision International