Sudan

United Nations Consolidated Inter-Agency Appeal for Sudan

Format
Appeal
Source
Posted
Originally published

Attachments


January - December 1998

February 1998

UNITED NATIONS
New York and Geneva, 1998

of the Appeal in zipped WordPerfect 6.1 format. [572K]

For additional printed copies, please contact:
Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
Inter-Agency Support Branch
Appeals and Reporting Unit
16, ave. Jean-Trembley
Ch-1209 Geneva, Switzerland

Tel.: (41 22) 788.1404
Fax: (41 22) 788.6389
E-Mail: Erlinda.Umali@dha.unicc.org

TABLE OF CONTENTS

A. Executive Summary

  • Listing of project activities

B. Emergency Needs in the Sudan in 1998
  • 1. OLS Areas

    1.1 Introduction
    1.2 General Challenges
    1.3 Regional Emergency Needs

  • 2. Non-OLS Areas

C. Lessons Learned in 1997

D. Humanitarian Strategy in 1998

  • 1. Goals
  • 2. Objectives
  • 3. Benchmarks

A. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The 1998 Consolidated Inter-agency Appeal for Sudan describes the emergency needs of the more than four million war and drought-affected Sudanese living in southern Sudan, the transitional zone and the displaced camps and settlements in the greater Khartoum area which United Nations agencies will attempt to meet during 1998. The aim of the 22 projects, totaling USD 109,378,789, which are presented in the Appeal is to support the coping and survival strategies of war-affected and displaced persons through a combination of short and medium-term interventions.

During the next twelve months, large parts of the Sudan are expected to experience the worst humanitarian conditions since 1994 when similar conditions destroyed hundreds of Sudanese communities and put hundreds of thousands of Sudanese at risk. As a result of on-going conflict, drought and crop failure, the number of vulnerable persons served by Operation Lifeline Sudan (OLS) is projected to rise by as much as 25% during the next year. Of particular concern are anticipated severe food deficits in the South where production declined by 45% due to dry weather and civil strife.

This increase in vulnerability is linked to events which occurred in 1997 when, despite efforts made by several of the parties to find peaceful solutions to the conflict, fighting intensified, bring Sudan into its fourteenth year of continuous civil war. The combination of increased military activity and the onset of drought devastated large parts of Sudan, further destabilizing and degrading the lives of millions of Sudanese civilians and putting intense pressure on people already living below subsistence levels. Widespread malnutrition and a spread in infectious diseases disproportionately affected the war-displaced in the hard-hit regions of Bahr Al Ghazal, Upper Nile, Jonglei and Equatoria.

At the same time, funding shortfalls and access restrictions limited relief efforts under Operations Lifeline Sudan. During 1997 the UN received approximately 40% of the funds it appealed for from donors. The impact of this funding shortfall was grave, forcing a severe cutback in emergency services and food assistance. Global malnutrition rates in hard-hit locations rose to over 50% and interventions in all programme areas including nutrition, primary health care and water were reduced. Populations which had been able to barely sustain themselves were forced to the brink of collapse, making the task of supporting them more urgent and difficult in 1998.

The long-term trend towards disintegration of communal networks in war-affected areas will almost certainly accelerate in 1998, raising the prospect of more internal displacement in a country which has the largest population of internally displaced persons (IDP) in the world. During 1997 it became clear that the ability of at-risk populations to rely on traditional coping mechanisms In order to survive can no longer be taken for granted. During the next 12 months UN agencies are faced with the prospect of bolstering the coping mechanisms of affected persons who were under-served during 1997 at the same time that more people will be hit by drought and increased insecurity.

The priority in 1998 for UN agencies operating under the umbrella of OLS is to meet the urgent needs of the most at-risk populations, including those suffering from food deficits and abnormally high rates of malnutrition. These needs were identified during the 1997 OLS Annual Needs Assessments and the 1997 FAO/WFP Crop and Food Supply Assessment Mission and will be periodically reassessed in all of the nine regions where OLS is operational. In OLS areas where populations benefit from relative food security and a certain level of basic services, the priority will be on helping communities sustain livelihoods and preventing a deterioration in living conditions. Although the needs of populations living in areas where the UN is denied access are currently unknown, OLS agencies are committed to providing appropriate levels of assistance as soon as access is granted.

The highest priority for UN agencies in non-OLS areas will be to provide food assistance to vulnerable groups while also responding to possible flood, drought or other emergencies. The needs of drought-affected populations living in areas outside OLS were identified in the 1997 FAO/WFP Crop and Food Supply Assessment which indicated that cereal production in the western states of North Darfur and North Kordofan and in Red Sea State was seriously reduced as a result of drought.

In order to meet the identified needs of war-affected populations, the United Nations’ humanitarian strategy for Sudan in 1998 has four overarching goals:

  • Meeting the most acute needs first: Although the UN will continue its multi-dimensional approach to the crisis in the Sudan, the main focus of UN interventions in 1998 will be on meeting the emergency needs of the more than four million Sudanese living in southern Sudan, the transitional zone and the displaced camps and settlements in the greater Khartoum area affected by the on-going civil war in the Sudan. Within the category of emergency needs, priority will be given to addressing acute needs first. This emphasis reflects the results of the 1997 OLS Annual Needs Assessments which clearly indicated that living conditions throughout the country are likely to deteriorate significantly in 1998, in some areas to critical levels, due to the combination of drought, crop failure and military conflict. In order to prevent a repetition of the 1994 and earlier 1988 crises, OLS agencies will make every effort to meet acute needs through emergency preparedness measures and rapid-response interventions.

  • Securing access to areas with populations in acute need and where clearance is inconsistent or denied: The UN will press for access to severely affected areas currently under-serviced by OLS due to restrictions including parts of northern Bahr Al Ghazal and western Jonglei. The UN will also urge the cooperation of all parties to provide assistance to people in need in rebel areas in the Nuba Mountains, which the Government granted access to in 1997 for the first time in OLS history. Whilst recognizing that at this moment it can not be foreseen where hostilities will have the greatest humanitarian impact, OLS will press for sustained access to areas, principally Equatoria and Bahr Al Ghazal, where the UN is operational but where the combination of drought and a resurgence of hostilities is likely to lead to acute crises for which OLS must be prepared. In the most critical conflict areas, a special effort will be required from the warring parties to allow UN personnel from both sectors to operate freely, if necessary, across conflict lines.

  • Strengthening impact and strategic monitoring: In order to gain better insight into the effectiveness of OLS operations and improve accountability, UN agencies will monitor the strategic goals which affect all OLS programmes including better access, expanded humanitarian space and the strict application of humanitarian principles and minimum operational standards. The agencies will also take steps to measure the impact of programme interventions on beneficiaries.

  • Insisting on strict adherence to humanitarian principles by all OLS agencies, partners and counterparts: As the leader of humanitarian operations in the Sudan, the UN will continue to concentrate on expanding and consolidating humanitarian space by ensuring that all OLS counterparts facilitate the work of UN agencies and non-governmental organizations (NGO). Attempts to place undue constraints on the operating environment, especially those which are contrary to the Ground Rules and humanitarian principles will result in strenuous efforts aimed at removing regulatory impediments.

United Nations agencies are requesting USD 109,378,789 for 22 emergency and rehabilitation projects. Although the main emphasis in this Appeal is on meeting acute needs, the UN acknowledges that the aim of humanitarian action must always be to seek durable solutions. During the course of OLS, the UN has developed a multi-dimensional approach to the humanitarian crisis in the Sudan which involves different types of interventions ranging from rapid responses aimed at the most acute problems to short-term projects aimed at protecting livelihoods through medium-term interventions aimed at reestablishing communities and social networks.

This multi-dimensional approach is reflected in the project section of the Appeal which is divided into two sub-sections: emergency needs and rehabilitation. Within the emergency section a clear distinction is made between projects targeting beneficiaries in OLS areas and projects aimed at populations outside OLS. The projects describe the measures which the UN will take to save lives and the intermediate steps aimed at protecting livelihoods and helping populations cope with chronic food insecurity, lack of primary health care, basic water and sanitation infrastructure and inadequate educational opportunities. The section also contains projects aimed at strengthening emergency coordination structures. The projects in the rehabilitation section describe medium-term approaches for meeting needs in areas where there is relative stability and consistent access.

Both the Government of Sudan (GOS) and the rebel movements have expressed strong interest in a focus on rehabilitation and development. OLS, however, will remain first and foremost an emergency humanitarian programme aimed at meeting the immediate survival needs of at-risk populations.

The projects in the emergency section are designed to meet acute emergency needs and protect the livelihoods of at-risk populations. The projects describe the measures which the UN will take to save lives and the intermediate steps aimed at helping populations cope with chronic food insecurity, lack of primary health care, basic water and sanitation infrastructures and inadequate educational opportunities. Within the emergency section, a distinction is made between projects targeting beneficiaries in OLS areas and projects aimed at populations outside OLS. The emergency projects fall into the following priority areas:

  • Emergency Food Assistance (USD 58.8 million) for an estimated 2.4 million internally displaced, war and drought-affected persons and vulnerable groups in southern Sudan, the transitional zone and the greater Khartoum area. The food needs of refugees do not appear in this appeal but will be resourced separately.

  • Emergency Responsiveness (USD 3.3 million) to enable the United Nations to respond effectively to the emergency needs of war and drought-affected populations in OLS areas; to enable the Untied Nations to respond effectively to natural and man-made disasters occurring outside OLS areas.

  • Health, Water and Sanitation, Nutrition and Household Food Security (USD 17.5 million) will target approximately 2.4 million war-affected and displaced people in the South, the transitional zone and displaced camps around Khartoum and will focus on: reducing mortality and morbidity caused by communicable diseases through proper case detection, management and effective preventive measures; increasing availability of safe drinking water and improving sanitation facilities and hygiene education; improving the nutritional status of children, pregnant and lactating women; ensuring that targeted households have improved access to sufficient food sources by providing seeds, tools, fishing equipment, animal health services and appropriate training.

  • Other Emergency Basic Services (USD 3.2 million) will focus on: basic emergency education assistance for 500,000 war-affected children and meeting the special needs of unaccompanied minors, including reunification of at least 400 children with their families; demobilization of children in the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) and South Sudan Independence Army (SSIA); protection of children’s rights (northern sector); and mine risk education and advocacy.

  • Refugees (USD 9.8 million) will focus on provision of multi-sectoral assistance to 135,739 refugees in 25 camps in the Sudan.

  • Inter-agency Coordination and Emergency Support (USD 13.4 million) will include: the UN Humanitarian Coordination Unit in Khartoum; the application of humanitarian principles within OLS; capacity building in collaboration with Sudanese humanitarian agencies and international NGOs; monitoring and evaluation programmes for UNICEF northern and southern sectors. Lokichokio camp operations; and aircraft operations.

The projects in the rehabilitation section aim at reestablishing communities and social networks. The projects describe medium-term approaches for meeting needs in areas where there is relative stability and consistent access. No distinction is made between OLS and non-OLS areas. The projects include:

This multi-dimensional Rehabilitation Projects (USD 3,5 million) will include: An Area Rehabilitation Scheme in Abyei, West Kordofan State; resettlement and repatriation of internally displaced persons; and reproductive health services for displaced women and children.

During the preparation of this Appeal every effort has been made by the UN agencies to streamline project proposals and develop realistic budgets for emergency interventions. For the first time, the UN technical agencies including WHO and FAO will implement projects in collaboration with UNICEF which serves as the lead agency in the non-food sector. In OLS areas, the technical agencies will provide key input into projects which are supervised and coordinated by UNICEF rather than submitting their own projects for funding. All agencies have developed emergency projects aimed at meeting the needs identified in the 1997 OLS Annual Needs Assessment and in recognition of a reduced funding base, taken steps to ensure that project budgets are based on realistic beneficiary numbers. In line with recommendations made by the OLS Review and reiterated by many of OLS’ major donors, the 1998 Appeal has been reduced in size and several new sections including a Lessons Learned and Impact of Funding Constraints, which concentrate on the impact of last year’s interventions, have been added.

The purpose of the 1998 Appeal is to ask donors to help support the UN agencies in their efforts to meet the needs of Sudan’s war-affected populations during the upcoming year. This can only be done if the donor community responds generously. The UN’s ability to fully implement the OLS Review recommendations as indicated in the Humanitarian Strategy section, including programmes for impact monitoring, depends upon the availability of funds. All humanitarian actors must accept responsibility for the fact that a continued lack of funding will potentially condemn millions of Sudanese to destitution, disease and, in hundreds of thousands of cases, possible starvation.

Table I : 1998 United Nations Consolidated Inter-Agency Appeal for Sudan

Listing of Project activities - By Appealing Agency
January - December 1998
Code
Sector / Activity
Appealing Agency
Requirements (USD)
OFFICE FOR THE COORDINATION OF HUMANITARIAN AFFAIRS
N11
UN Humanitarian Coordination Unit
OCHA
1,712,375
Sub-Total
1,712,375
UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
N18
Disaster Preparedness and Response
UNDP
218,500
N20
Area Rehabilitation Scheme
UNDP
1,000,000
N21
Settlement\Integration of Displaced Communities
UNDP
1,300,000
Sub-Total
2,518,500
UNITED NATIONS HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES
N19
Multi-sectoral Assistance for Refugees
UNHCR
9,799,400
Sub-Total
9,799,400
UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN FUND
N02
Emergency Preparedness and Response
UNICEF
3,037,125
N03A
Emergency Health
UNICEF/WHO
6,810,548
N04
Water and Environmental Sanitation
UNICEF
3,477,500
N05
Nutrition
UNICEF
1,817,389
N06
Household Food Security: Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries
UNICEF
4,117,548
N07
Emergency Basic Education/Children in Especially Difficult Circumstances
UNICEF
2,212,500
N08
Demobilization of Child Soldiers
UNICEF
268,875
N09
Protecting the Rights of War-affected Children
UNICEF
105,800
N10
Mine Risk Education, Advocacy and Information Gathering
UNICEF/OCHA
563,820
N12
Humanitarian Principles
UNICEF
637,500
N13
Institutional Capacity Building
UNICEF
752,000
N14
Monitoring and Evaluation
UNICEF
741,550
N15
Lokichokio Camp Operation/Logistics Support and Programme Field Operation
UNICEF
3,234,400
N16
Aircraft Operations and Logistics (northern sector)
UNICEF
994,000
N17A
Aircraft Operations and Logistics (southern sector)
UNICEF
4,805,750
Sub-Total
33,576,305
WORLD FOOD PROGRAMME
N01
Emergency Food Assistance for Internally Displaced Persons, War and Drought-Affected Populations and Vulnerable Groups in Southern Sudan, the Transitional Zone and Khartoum
WFP
58,838,271
N17B
Aircraft Operations and Logistics (southern sector)
WFP
511,238
Sub-Total
59,349,509
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION
N03B
Emergency Health
WHO
1,240,500
Sub-Total
1,240,500
UNITED NATIONS POPULATION FUND
N22
Reproductive Health Services for the Displaced
UNFPA
1,182,200
Sub-Total
1,182,200
GRAND TOTAL
109,378,789

.

Table II : Total Funding Requirements for the
1998 United Nations Consolidated Inter-Agency Appeal for Sudan

BY SECTOR
January - December 1998
Sector
Requirements (USD)
EMERGENCY FOOD ASSISTANCE
58,838,271
EMERGENCY RESPONSIVENESS
3,255,625
HEALTH, WATER AND SANITATION, NUTRITION AND HOUSEHOLD FOOD SECURITY
17,463,485
OTHER EMERGENCY BASIC SERVICES
3,150,995
REFUGEES
9,799,400
INTER-AGENCY COORDINATION AND EMERGENCY PROGRAMME SUPPORT
13,388,813
REHABILITATION PROJECTS
3,482,200
GRAND TOTAL
109,378,789

.

Table III : Total Funding Requirements for the
1998 United Nations Consolidated Inter-Agency Appeal for Sudan

BY APPEALING AGENCY
January - December 1998

Appealing Agency
Requirements (USD)
OFFICE FOR THE COORDINATION OF HUMANITARIAN AFFAIRS
1,712,375
UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
2,518,500
UNITED NATIONS HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES
9,799,400
UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN FUND
33,576,305
WORLD FOOD PROGRAMME
59,349,509
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION
1,240,500
UNITED NATIONS POPULATION FUND
1,182,200
GRAND TOTAL
109,378,789
B. EMERGENCY NEEDS IN THE SUDAN IN 1998

1. OLS AREAS

1.1 Introduction

The needs presented in this Appeal are those which must be met if the coping and survival strategies of war-affected and displaced persons are to be supported over the course of the next twelve months. The UN agencies operating under the umbrella of Operation Lifeline Sudan (OLS) are committed in 1998 to meeting the urgent needs of the most at-risk populations, including those suffering from food deficits and abnormally high rates of malnutrition. These needs were identified during the 1997 OLS Annual Needs Assessment and will be periodically reassessed in all of the nine regions where OLS is operational. In OLS areas where populations benefit from relative food security and a certain level of basic services, the priority will be on helping communities sustain livelihoods and preventing a deterioration in living conditions. Although the needs of populations living in areas where the UN is denied access are currently unknown, OLS agencies are committed to providing appropriate levels of assistance as soon as access is granted. The highest priority for UN agencies in non-OLS areas will be to provide food assistance to vulnerable groups while also responding to possible flood, drought or other emergencies. The needs of drought-affected populations living in areas outside OLS were identified in assessments conducted at the same time as the OLS Annual Needs Assessment.

1.2 General Challenges

In order to meet the urgent, emergency needs of war-affected populations, OLS must:

  • Strengthen its emergency preparedness capacities through the pre-stocking of basic relief supplies, fuel and staff survival equipment. Security training must be provided to field staff enabling them to operate more safely in areas of general insecurity.

  • Strengthen its basic logistics capacities including reliable surface and air transportation, storage, distribution, communications and other support structures in order to deliver emergency relief in the most timely and effective way. The UN must retain its commitment to using the most cost-effective routes whenever security conditions permit. Where appropriate, UN agencies will need to discuss these conditions with the parties on a case-by-case basis.

1.3 Regional Emergency Needs

The following is a synopsis of the challenges to be addressed in 1998 in each of the nine regions where OLS is operational:

Khartoum

It is estimated that there are 2.2 million IDPs in Khartoum, of whom 220,000 to 300,000 live in the four official displaced camps. Khartoum camp residents do not have access to land for cultivation, rely principally on labor wages and achieve food security through food purchases from local markets. OLS estimates that 80% of Khartoum displaced in the camps are able to meet only 50% of their annual food needs through their own resources.

Challenges

  • Provide 6,700 MTs of relief food for 176,000 beneficiaries in displaced camps pending periodic re-assessments.

  • Develop coordination, planning and standardized information systems aimed at targeting the most vulnerable and improving the quality and impact of humanitarian interventions.

  • Intensify Children in Especially Difficult Circumstances (CEDC) outreach including child tracing and family reunification activities through expanded participation of NGOs and community organizations.

  • Provide clean water supply to Mayo and Wad Al Bashir IDP camps.

White Nile State

According to a July 1996 survey, 40,000 persons live in Goz Al Salaam and Ellaya displaced camps in White Nile. Eighty percent of these households earn sufficient income from seasonal employment in agricultural schemes leaving the overall food deficit for the camps at approximately 5%. However, 8,000 vulnerable persons (children under five, pregnant and lactating women, widows, disabled persons and elderly), representing 20% of the displaced population in the camps, will require relief food assistance, especially in the critical months of April to July. In the camps, sanitation conditions are poor, open defecation is widely practiced and there is only limited access to safe drinking water. The majority of health workers in the area are untrained and provide substandard care.

Challenges

  • Provide approximately 70 MTs of relief food for supplementary and therapeutic feeding programmes for 8,000 women, children under five years of age and disabled.

  • Establish community-based water and environmental sanitation (WES) services in Goz Al Salaam and Ellaya IDP camps.

  • Improve health and nutrition services through recruitment of qualified personnel, training of health workers, regular drug supplies and more health education.

  • Provide fishing equipment to targeted beneficiaries.

Blue Nile State

Movement of displaced populations into Blue Nile State displaced camps began in January 1997 after rebel forces attacked Kurmuk and Gissan. In view of December’s anticipated good harvest and an expected increase in farm labor opportunities in nearby agricultural schemes during the year, insignificant food deficits are projected for 1998.

Although the food situation is likely to be stable, expanded programme of immunization (EPI) coverage is low and supplies of essential drugs sporadic. Displaced populations rely on surface water and shallow wells for drinking water. Virtually all hafirs and hand-pumps, the major sources of water, are in disrepair. Open defecation is commonly practiced.

Challenges

  • Repair hafirs, construct latrines and develop water and sanitation management systems in the IDP camps.

  • Expand essential drug supply and EPI activities and conduct periodic nutritional surveillance and appropriate interventions.

  • Conduct periodic monitoring and assessments of needs in the food and non-food sectors.

South Kordofan

Approximately 172,789 displaced and returnees directly affected by the civil war live in 72 peace villages. The region is one of the most vulnerable served by OLS due to the combination of insecurity and routine crop failure caused by erratic rainfall and dry spells. Overall food deficits range between 30 and 40% and are expected to reach up to 60% in displaced camps and settlements. Food conditions in Sidra camp are the worst.

The region’s few health facilities are in poor condition, lacking equipment and trained staff. Drug supply is irregular and the cost of medicine is beyond the means of most of the population. Water supply is inadequate and open defecation is practiced throughout the region. Basic education suffers from the lack of trained teachers, inappropriate facilities and insufficient materials. The situation of children in especially difficult circumstances is of considerable concern but requires closer analysis before interventions can be launched.

Challenges

  • Provide approximately 2,000 MTs of relief food to 56,450 displaced and war-affected beneficiaries during the hunger gap period from April to July.

  • Install and repair hand-pumps.

  • Expand essential drug supply and EPI activities and conduct periodic nutritional surveillance and appropriate interventions.

  • Conduct a comprehensive CEDC survey.

West Kordofan

The total displaced population in An Nahud, Meiram and Abyei is estimated at 31,343. It is projected that 4,000 - 5,000 new arrivals will move to the area between March and July as a result of continuing civil and food insecurity in northern Bahr Al Ghazal. Approximately 20% of the population in An Nahud and Meiram will need food assistance where deficits are expected to rise as high as 80%.

In 1997 the health status of displaced and returnees improved considerably, resulting in lower mortality rates. To maintain this trend, UNICEF will need to continue provision of medical supplies. The nutritional status of new arrivals in Abyei and children under five in An Nahud remains poor. In Abyei and Meiram, where sanitation is poor and open defecation widely practiced, water yards must be repaired. Displaced children in An Nahud do not have access to schools.

Challenges

  • Provide approximately 900 MTs of relief food for 19,300 displaced and war-affected beneficiaries during the hunger gap period from April to July.

  • Repair and maintain water yards in Meiram and Abyei.

  • Deploy an UNHCU IDP Coordinator to Abyei to monitor IDP movements into the area from northern Bahr Al Ghazal and to assist in the coordination of assistance to IDPs in the area.

  • Conduct regular nutritional surveys in all IDP areas.

  • Restore the EPI cold chain in Lagawa.

South Darfur

The official figure of the IDP population in South Darfur State is 161,459. Of these, 84,200 live in the 14 official camps in Ad Daein and Nyala Provinces. The rest have settled among the local populations. Food insecurity will increase due to the combination of erratic and poor rainfall distribution, late delivery of seeds and infertile soils. Food aid will be needed from June to September in Ad Daein, Nyala and Buram. Low-income groups are expected to experience food deficits of up to 40%. The food situation will require reassessment in April 1998 at the beginning of cultivation period.

The ratio of EPI coverage in the region is very low. No baseline nutritional survey has been conducted in the region during the last three years. Sanitation in the IDP camps and the condition of water yards are very poor. In the Ad Daein camps, 70% of water yards require immediate maintenance. Basic education has been adversely affected by household food insecurity and the lack of teachers, resulting in very low enrollment rates and high levels of drop-out, especially among girls.

Challenges

  • Provide 4,400 MTs of relief food for 125,438 displaced and war-affected beneficiaries during the hunger gap period from April to July.

  • Link seed deliveries with food deliveries.

  • Expand and maintain clean water sources.

  • Extend EPI coverage for all six antigens; train health cadres in IDP communities.

Bahr Al Ghazal Region
(West Bahr Al Ghazal, North Bahr Al Ghazal, Lakes and Warrap States)

A 50 - 60% food deficit is expected for the region caused by inadequate rainfall, long dry spells, pest infestation and regional insecurity. Major deficits are projected for the displaced camps around Wau and the rural areas of northern Bahr Al Ghazal. Constant raiding and looting from various militia have depleted the resources of the majority of households. Militia activity has disrupted relief interventions, destroyed markets and caused internal displacement. Crop losses have resulted in increased dependence on livestock to meet food needs. An increasing number of households are unable to survive through traditional support networks.

The region suffers from a lack of trained medical personnel and has only limited preventive health services. Medical supplies are insufficient and environmental sanitation standards are very low. Only 10% of rural and vulnerable populations have access to safe drinking water. Proper sanitation facilities are unavailable to 95% of the population.

Serious logistical constraints affect the timing and amount of humanitarian assistance which can be delivered. Poor infrastructure, inadequate transportation networks and persistent insecurity limit the use of land routes. Although access to affected populations is achieved through air corridors, deterioration of landing strips during the rainy period means that most relief must be delivered during the dry season. The lack of official and local NGO capacity is also a significant problem, especially in Government (GOS) locations where service delivery is generally of poor quality.

Challenges

  • Deliver approximately 17,500 MT of relief food for 485,000 displaced and war-affected persons prior to the hunger gap period from April to July.

  • Distribute relief seeds and tools; vaccinate livestock against rinderpest.

  • Repair and expand EPI cold chain and revitalize EPI outreach; train health care personnel in mother and child health (MCH) practices; provide drugs and emergency health kits.

  • Provide safe drinking water by maintaining existing water sources and constructing new ones where needed, especially in Ariat where 100% of the population is without access to clean water.

  • Establish effective NGO services in Gogrial and surrounding areas in northern Bahr Al Ghazal.

  • Conduct periodic nutritional surveys in Aweil.

Equatoria Region
(Bahr Al Jebel and East Equatoria States)

Increased insecurity has led to significant population movements and put additional strains on the food security and health situation of local inhabitants. Food deficits ranged from 10 to 50% last year due to worst crop production in three years. High levels of insecurity are expected to increase the strain on livelihoods during 1998. Returnee, displaced and refugee populations in all parts oft the region will require relief throughout the year.

In Government areas, communities suffer from irregular supply of essential drugs, lack of qualified health personnel and inadequate health facilities. Global malnutrition rates among children under 5 years of age reach 15%. In rebel-held areas, there is a need for emergency health preparedness in the displaced camps. Distribution of Vitamin A tablets needs to be coordinated with measles vaccinations and health education provided for mothers.

The availability of safe drinking water is limited and sanitation conditions are extremely poor throughout the region, leading to serious water pollution and the spread of diseases. Schools across the region lack qualified personnel and basic teaching materials. Almost 30% of teachers are untrained and school drop-out rates are high.

Challenges

  • Provide approximately 15,904 MTs of relief food for 410,261 displaced and war-affected beneficiaries, especially during the hunger gap period from April to July. (This figure also includes relief food for West Equatoria State).

  • Strengthen EPI coverage and traditional birth attendants (TBA) and community health worker (CHW) training; distribute essential drugs more widely; extend nutritional surveillance and interventions to locations outside of Juba and in the displaced camps throughout the region.

  • Provide seeds and tools; vaccinate livestock against rinderpest.

  • Repair and expand clean drinking water sources; provide affordable sanitation alternatives and stronger public health education activities.

  • Develop community awareness programmes stressing importance of education, particularly for girls.

Upper Nile Region
(Upper Nile, Jonglei and Unity States)

The region is considered to be one of the most challenging environments and the least developed areas in southern Sudan. Although there has been relatively stability in the area since the South Sudan Independence Movement (SSIM) signed the Peace Agreement with the Government, the second half of 1997 saw significant destabilization in western Jonglei State due to fighting between various factions within SSIM. Although many population centers can potentially be reached by river, there is little or no access by road to many parts of the region, and access by air is limited by the substandard quality of airstrips.

Despite significant reductions in crop yields in Upper Nile and Jonglei States due to bad distribution of rains and dry spells, average households are able to cover 90% of food requirements from other food sources such as cattle and wild food collection. Although food deficits are expected to range only between 5 and 10% in most areas, food aid will be needed to support populations with localized deficits, especially during cultivation. Food security in Unity State was negatively affected by erratic rainfall, prolonged dry spells and increased insecurity around Pariang town. Approximately 60% of households in the Mayom and Bentiu areas are expected to have food deficits of between 20 and 30%.

Health facilities are poorly equipped and staffed. For the region as a whole, there is only one medical doctor for every 157,000 citizens and one health visitor for every 183,000 people. Water and sanitation conditions are poor with less than 20% of the total population able to access safe drinking water. It is estimated that 99% of the population has no sanitary facilities resulting in extremely high rates of diarrhea, eye infections and other diseases.

Challenges

  • In Upper Nile and Jonglei States, provide 14,794 MTs of relief food for 893,350 displaced and war-affected beneficiaries, especially farmers during the cultivation/hunger gap period from April to July.

  • In Unity State, provide 700 MTs of relief food for 27,290 displaced and war-affected beneficiaries during the hunger gap period from April to July.

  • Link seed distribution with food aid; provide fishing equipment to target groups; vaccinate livestock against rinderpest, particularly in Boma and Pochalla.

  • Continue expansion of clean water supply systems to major towns and villages; expand community-based programmes aimed at basic hygiene, improved sanitation and drainage.

  • Use supplementary and therapeutic feeding to control and treat malnutrition among children under five and pregnant and lactating women.

  • Distribute vaccines and cold chain, drugs and health kits; support National Polio Immunization days (NID).

  • Provide broader, more continuous OLS outreach services to the Sobat river corridor; ensure more sustained delivery of non-food relief to Pibor and Bor.

  • In Unity State, conduct regular nutritional surveillance; support basic primary health care activities; provide training for health personnel; strengthen WES activities; use dry season road access from Kadugli in South Kordofan.

Equatoria Region (West Equatoria State)

The region is expected to remain relatively stable. Although West Equatoria has been a "food surplus" area for the last several years, declining agricultural production, increased migration and more cross-border trade threaten to change this trend. In order to respond to the massive population transfers expected as a result of increased hostilities, OLS will need to strengthen its rapid response capabilities.

Although crop yields are low in certain areas, most stable communities will be able to meet their food needs either because of high levels of internal and cross-border trade, large cattle stocks in the east and numerous income-earning opportunities in the west. However, displaced populations will continue to have only limited access resources and will be forced to compete for kin support, fish, wild foods and trade opportunities. Food security may deteriorate as a result of increasing instability and further influxes of returnees and displaced populations.

Although there is a relatively high level of hygiene and sanitation awareness, only 50% of minimum clean water requirements are met. Although more health facilities have been established in this region than any other, curative and preventive services remain limited. EPI coverage needs to be increased and the provision of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) expanded in order to address acute diarrheal cases. In light of gender imbalances, programmes aimed at enrolling and keeping girls in school need to be developed.

Challenges

  • Provide relief food as a temporary measure (see Equatoria above for food relief figures for the Equatoria region as a whole).

  • Provide supplementary and therapeutic feeding to children, pregnant and lactating women.

  • Distribute seeds and tools, livestock vaccines and medicines to agro-pastoralist areas.

  • Rehabilitate water sources and provide community training in water management.

  • Provide drugs, medical kits, vaccines and cold chain equipment; train health personnel on management of diarrheal diseases; train TBAs.

2. NON-OLS AREAS

North Darfur

North Darfur is a chronic food deficit area. Harvests were very poor in 1997 due to drought and are expected to be substantially below average again this year. Food aid will be needed for a six-month period. The food situation should be monitored from March 1998 to ascertain appropriate levels of assistance.

Challenge

  • Provide 9,234 MTs of relief food for 180,000 drought-affected beneficiaries from April to September.

Red Sea Hills

Red Seas Hills is a chronic food deficit area, which suffered localized crop failure in 1997 due to floods and drought. Food aid will be needed for a six-month period. The food situation should be monitored from March 1998 to ascertain appropriate levels of assistance.

Challenge

  • Provide 300 MTs of relief food for 14,000 flood and drought-affected beneficiaries from April to September.

C. LESSONS LEARNED IN 1997

In 1997 the UN focused on raising the quality of humanitarian operations in Sudan, as was strongly recommended by the OLS Review. Considerable efforts were made to broaden access to vulnerable populations and improve the delivery of assistance through a stricter application of the core set of OLS principles - neutrality, transparency, impartiality and accountability. Steps were also taken to deepen coordination between OLS’ northern and southern sectors and to prioritize assistance to and protection of internally displaced people.

As a result of these efforts, significant improvements were achieved in the delivery and distribution of relief supplies, including the increased use of overland routes for non-food items, improved cost-efficiency and strengthened programme monitoring. United Nations agencies and non-governmental organizations were able to respond rapidly to a series of life-threatening emergencies across Sudan. The needs of internally displaced persons were given greater priority with the deployment of UN Humanitarian Coordination Unit’s (UNHCU’s) IDP Coordinators in Government areas with major concentrations of internally displaced persons. The level of coordination between OLS northern and southern sectors also deepened, which resulted in a more coordinated and coherent approach to OLS policy-making and programming.

Despite its achievements, however, the UN experienced difficulties in fully meeting the objectives of the 1997 humanitarian strategy because of insecurity, access restrictions and a critical shortfall in funding requirements. At times, these constraints resulted in affected populations failing to receive basic humanitarian support.

The major lessons learned in 1997 were:

  • Difficulties encountered with gaining consistent access to vulnerable populations and the constraints imposed by limited funding highlighted the need for an access strategy which enables the UN to expand and consolidate humanitarian space to meet the urgent needs of populations at-risk. It was agreed that in order to more effectively mobilize and distribute scarce resources, the central plank of an OLS access strategy must be the identification of areas with populations in the most urgent humanitarian need.

  • Continuing violations by the parties to the conflict of the central tenets of OLS - neutrality, accountability, transparency and impartiality - has highlighted the need for the UN to insist regularly and emphatically on adherence to humanitarian principles.

  • The UN's limited capacity, due to inadequate funding, to monitor and evaluate the impact of its humanitarian interventions has been a major constraint on achieving programme improvement. It has also impeded the UN’s ability to meet demands for greater accountability. The UN recognizes that strategic and impact monitoring mechanisms must be strengthened in order to improve the accountability of the UN system and to enable the UN to better assess and defend the quality of its humanitarian operations.

D. HUMANITARIAN STRATEGY IN 1998

1. GOALS

The United Nation's Humanitarian Strategy for 1998 has four main, overarching goals:

  • meeting the most acute needs first;
  • securing access to areas with populations in acute need and where clearance is inconsistent or denied;
  • strengthening impact and strategic monitoring;
  • insisting on strict adherence to humanitarian principles by all OLS agencies, partners and counterparts.

Acute Needs

Although the UN will continue its multi-dimensional approach to the crisis in the Sudan, the main focus of UN interventions in 1998 will be on meeting the emergency needs of the more than four million Sudanese living in southern Sudan, the transitional zone and the displaced camps and settlements in the greater Khartoum area affected by the on-going civil war in the Sudan. Within the category of emergency needs, priority will be given to addressing acute needs first. This emphasis reflects the results of the 1997 OLS Annual Needs Assessment which clearly indicated that living conditions throughout the country are likely to deteriorate significantly in 1998, in some areas to critical levels, due to the combination of drought, crop failure and military conflict.

It is expected that insecurity in the war zones will almost certainly intensify during the winter dry season, leading to further internal displacement and putting hundreds of thousands more Sudanese at risk of serious hunger and disease. Early warning systems used by the UN and NGOs forecast drought in belts stretching from East Equatoria through northern Bahr Al Ghazal and across northern Kordofan and Darfur. Massive crop failure, in some places as high as 90%, has already occurred in sections of Equatoria, Bahr Al Ghazal, North Darfur and the Kordofan States. It is widely expected that large parts of the Sudan will experience the worst humanitarian conditions since 1994 when similar conditions destroyed hundreds of Sudanese communities. In 1998 the number of vulnerable persons served by OLS is likely to rise by as much as 25%. In order to prevent a repetition of the 1994 and earlier 1988 crises, OLS agencies will make every effort to meet the acute needs of at-risk populations through emergency preparedness measures and rapid-response interventions.

A top priority for the UN in 1997 was the implementation of the OLS Review recommendations endorsed by the UN agencies. Although OLS was able to successfully comply with 33 of the 41 OLS Review recommendations by the end of 1997, several difficult recommendations related to access and monitoring remained only partially implemented. The UN’s strategy for 1998 is directed at a fuller implementation of these recommendations under the leadership of the Secretary-General’s Special Envoy for Humanitarian Affairs.

Access

In line with OLS' commitment to a fuller implementation of the Review, a main priority for the UN in the next year is securing access to areas with populations in critical need which are consistently denied clearance by the Government. In the wake of the Special Envoy’s first visit in June 1997, steps were taken to address certain bottlenecks, which if sustained and strengthened, could lead to improved access and a better operating environment for the UN agencies and NGOs. Building on the Special Envoy’s incremental, pragmatic approach which stresses concrete, step-by-step improvements, the UN will press for access to severely affected areas currently under-serviced by OLS due to restrictions including parts of northern Bahr Al Ghazal and western Jonglei. The UN will also urge the cooperation of all parties to provide assistance to people in need in rebel areas in the Nuba Mountains, which the Government granted access to in 1997 for the first time in OLS history. Whilst recognizing that at this moment it can not be foreseen where hostilities will have the greatest humanitarian impact, OLS will press for sustained access to areas, principally Equatoria and Bahr Al Ghazal, where the UN is operational but where the combination of drought and a resurgence of hostilities is likely to lead to acute crises for which OLS must be prepared. In the most critical conflict areas, a special effort will be required from the warring parties to allow UN personnel from both sectors to operate freely, if necessary, across conflict lines.

Monitoring

Another major concern of OLS, highlighted by the OLS Review but only partially addressed during 1997, is the need to strengthen impact and strategic monitoring. In order to gain better insight into the effectiveness of OLS operations and improve accountability, UN agencies will monitor the strategic goals which affect all OLS programmes including better access, expanded humanitarian space and the strict application of humanitarian principles and minimum operational standards. The agencies will also take steps to measure the impact of programme interventions on beneficiaries.

Humanitarian Principles

As the leader of humanitarian operations in the Sudan, the UN will continue to concentrate on expanding and consolidating humanitarian space by ensuring that all OLS counterparts facilitate the work of UN agencies and NGOs. Attempts to place undue constraints on the operating environment, especially those which are contrary to the Ground Rules and humanitarian principles, will result in strenuous efforts aimed at removing regulatory impediments.

2. OBJECTIVES

The specific objectives of the UN’s 1998 humanitarian strategy are to:

  • ensure access to areas where OLS has been consistently denied clearance;
  • develop emergency preparedness plans for areas likely to be affected by drought, crop failure and military conflict;
  • promote strict application of minimum operational standards, humanitarian principles and rights such as those embodied in the Convention of the Rights of the Child (CRC) and other international instruments;
  • encourage greater participation of beneficiaries, particularly women, in decision-making about humanitarian and emergency programming and interventions;
  • improve field coordination between the UN agencies and partner NGOs and press for greater international non-governmental organization (INGO) presence in areas with the most urgent needs;
  • prioritize impact monitoring through restructuring of information systems and databases and staff training;
  • strengthen the regional approach by compiling and updating "Emergency Bulletins" for each region where the UN is active;
  • establish strategic parameters for interventions directed at internally displaced persons.

To ensure that progress is made in meeting the UN’s goals, specific benchmarks for each humanitarian goal have been established for OLS. These benchmarks will be regularly reviewed in quarterly updates which will be sent to donors, counterparts and partners.

3. BENCHMARKS

Access Strategy

As part of its on-going efforts to achieve full access to all populations in need, OLS will continue to analyze the impact of flight and barge denials. This information will be used by the Special Envoy and United Nations Coordinator for Emergency and Relief Operations in the Sudan (UNCERO) in their efforts to expand access with all OLS counterparts. The UN agencies are committed to ensuring that:

  • UNCERO continues to monitor access, including the impact of denials, and that this information is presented in a balanced way in monthly "Emergency Bulletins" distributed to counterparts, donors and partners.

Emergency Preparedness

In both OLS sectors, contingency plans will be developed by the UN and NGOs to respond to drought and conflict. The first plans will cover areas where increased conflict and drought is expected including Bahr Al Ghazal and Equatoria. Both sectors will also establish Emergency Response Teams which will be mandated to coordinate inter-agency responses to emergency situations. The UN agencies are committed to ensuring that:

  • contingency plans for Equatoria and Bahr Al Ghazal are completed by January 1998;
  • Emergency Response Teams are established and equipped by February 1998;
  • agencies mobilize adequate resources whenever necessary to quickly respond to new emergency needs.

Humanitarian Principles

Implementation of the new humanitarian principles programme for the northern sector will begin in early 1998. The programme, which was agreed in broad outline with the Government and the Special Envoy in November 1997, will be coordinated by UNHCU in close collaboration with UNICEF’s child rights programme. Training programmes for Government officials, NGOs and UN staff will be held with the aim of promoting adherence to humanitarian principles and improving assistance to vulnerable populations. A key objective of the programme will be to raise the profile of OLS operations. All partners will be encouraged to apply humanitarian principles in their field operations to ensure that the rights of beneficiaries are not violated and that beneficiaries are not harmed by actions undertaken by OLS partners. In the southern sector, the path-breaking work done by UNICEF’s Humanitarian Principles Unit, including implementation of the OLS Ground Rules, will continue. Pending the results of an internal review and other independent reports, further innovation will occur in the programme including expansion into the areas of good governance and demobilization of child soldiers. The UN agencies are committed to ensuring that:

  • the first humanitarian principles workshops are held in the northern sector by March 1998 and that by the end of 1998, workshops have been held in all major GOS locations serviced by OLS.
  • the first land mine awareness workshops are conducted in the southern sector by March 1998 and in the northern sector by June 1998;
  • the first workshops on demobilization of child soldiers are conducted in the southern sector by June 1998.

Beneficiary Participation

UNHCU's IDP Coordinators will give priority to establishing participatory mechanisms for beneficiary populations in displaced camps and settlements in the northern sector. Beneficiaries will be encouraged to discuss the most cost-effective means for meeting their needs. Following the lead taken by WFP, and especially by WFP Nairobi which won the 1997 WFP Award for Improving the Lives of Women, all OLS agencies will be encouraged to factor gender into their humanitarian programming. In the northern sector, WFP will introduce a new programme in conjunction with UNICEF, "Women Knocking on Women's Doors," aimed at increasing displaced women’s involvement in the health sector. In addition to this programme, UNICEF Khartoum will be integrating a more comprehensive "gender-focus" in all of its emergency programmes. Special attention will be given to increasing the role of women beneficiaries in decision-making, especially in the key areas of nutrition, infant health and food distribution. In the southern sector, which has actively promoted gender sensitization in cross-sectoral programming since 1996, WFP is budgeting for a gender consultancy. The consultant will work closely with the WFP’s Food Economy Analysis Unit (FEAU) to clearly identify and recommend steps for overcoming current gender imbalances in southern Sudan. The UN agencies are committed to ensuring that:

  • Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) guidelines are included in the Ground Rules dissemination programme by January 1998;
  • WFP Khartoum initiates its "Women Knocking on Women’s Doors" programme by March 1998;
  • the recommendations made by the WFP Nairobi gender consultancy are integrated into WFP programming by June 1998;
  • UNHCU’s IDP Coordinators establish participatory mechanisms for IDP beneficiaries in GOS locations by June 1998.

Field Coordination

UN agencies will continue to work closely in partnership with counterparts and NGOs and to clarify the respective roles of each partner in view of changing circumstances. Under the leadership of UNCERO, the UN agencies in the northern sector will take the lead in coordinating field assistance and providing advocacy on key policy issues including access. The agencies will work with partner organizations in the newly created Humanitarian Aid Forum (HAF) to discuss service delivery protocols for all humanitarian actors and begin regional planning. UN agencies in the northern sector will continue to encourage the Government to improve access for INGOs in OLS areas. The UN agencies are committed to ensuring that:

  • all HAF sub-committees in the northern sector are operational by February 1998;
  • service delivery protocols and regional plans for the northern sector are under discussion by February 1998.

Impact Monitoring

Although all OLS agencies took concrete steps during 1997 to improve monitoring capabilities, OLS still does not have a comprehensive monitoring and evaluation system capable of systematically monitoring the impact of programme interventions. With the introduction in 1998 of Vulnerability Assessment and Mapping (VAM) by WFP Khartoum, the first OLS-wide database system will be operational. UNICEF’s Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation Unit (PMEU) will continue to strengthen its "Location Profile System" (LPS) which provides detailed information about conditions on a location and sector specific basis. In conjunction with UNICEF Nairobi, UNICEF Khartoum will maintain a regularly updated database which will serve as the information bank on the status of children throughout the Sudan. WFP Nairobi’s Food Economy Analysis Unit (FEAU) will continue to update baseline data collected since 1994 and will focus on refining its monitoring and evaluation methodology in conjunction with NGOs and the Household Food Security (HHFS) section in UNICEF. The UN agencies will ensure that:

  • southern sector’s food forum, comprised of representatives from UNICEF, WFP and other agencies working on food issues, is reactivated by February 1998;
  • WFP Nairobi’s FEAU database is revised by March 1998;
  • WFP Khartoum in collaboration with UNICEF and NGOs conducts nutritional surveys in locations receiving food aid from March 1998;
  • UNICEF Khartoum and Nairobi reach agreement on the standardized database on the status of children in the Sudan by May 1998;
  • WFP Khartoum launches VAM by June 1998;
  • WFP Khartoum holds the first VAM training workshops by July 1998.

Regional Approach

The northern sector will continue to strengthen the regional approach which was first introduced in 1996 as a way of strengthening field input and programming. UNHCU will be responsible for drafting monthly reports for each region which describe the emergency status of at-risk populations. Special attention will be given to the nutritional status of beneficiaries and to conditions leading to internal displacement. Information concerning coping strategies, conflict lines, crop conditions, etc. will also be included and compared on a routine basis with the data collected from VAM. The regional profiles will be distributed to all OLS counterparts, donors and partners and are expected to form the framework for regional planning. Agencies will continue to provide technical training to local counterparts in field locations. WFP Khartoum will establish three new sub-offices bringing the total number of its field offices to ten. These offices will be managed by international and national staff and supported by a core team of mobile and experienced food monitors based in Khartoum. The UN agencies will ensure that:

  • UNHCU disseminates the first monthly regional profiles in February 1998.

Internally Displaced Persons

Building on the successful August launch of its integrated IDP programme in the northern sector, UNHCU will take the lead in developing comprehensive strategic parameters for IDPs. Such parameters will draw on the preparatory work done by UNDP including the survey of IDP settlements in Khartoum and will outline the specific areas where UN and NGO intervention is appropriate. The parameters, which will be drafted in close collaboration with the UN agencies and NGOs and shared widely with appropriate GOS authorities, will also detail the conditions under which interventions should be conducted, especially in the sensitive areas of relocation and resettlement. It is expected that they will serve as the basis for developing programmes aimed at improving the situation facing IDPs and helping them to resolve their status either through integration or resettlement. The UN agencies will ensure that:

  • UNHCU presents the first draft of the strategic parameters by June 1998;
  • pending extensive consultations with all OLS partners, a final draft of the parameters is completed by August 1998.

As part of its commitment to strategic monitoring, the UN will closely monitor each humanitarian goal. Quarterly OLS Strategy Meetings will continue to be held for managers from both northern and southern sectors where progress made on each goal will be discussed and future steps agreed. All OLS counterparts, partners and donors will receive quarterly humanitarian updates indicating achievements against the goals and significant constraints encountered. Agencies will be asked to evaluate the consequences of funding shortfalls in these reports and where appropriate, to re-prioritize project inputs. Regular high-level consultations with donors will continue under the auspices of the International Advisory Committee (IAC). In addition, collaboration at the field level will continue through donor meetings, consultative mechanisms with counterparts, consortium meetings in the southern sector and the Humanitarian Aid Forum in the northern sector.

END


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