Sudan

UNICEF Humanitarian Action: Sudan Northern Sector Donor Update 18 Sep 2001

Format
Situation Report
Source
Posted
Originally published


URGENT NEEDS FOR FLOODS AND DROUGHT RESPONSE

  • Some 600,000 Sudanese suffer long-term effects of drought
  • New internally displaced persons from Bahr el Ghazal into South Darfur
  • Over 100,000 affected by Nile floods
  • Only 36% of the UNICEF 2001 Appeal funded

1. EMERGENCY OVERVIEW AND RECENT DEVELOPMENTS

Water shortages provoke displacement

Prolonged dry spells in most parts of the Darfur and Kordofan regions, combined with three consecutive years of late rains in East Equatoria and parts of Bahr El Ghazal severely affected agricultural production in 2000. Significant water shortages have resulted in large-scale population movements, increased vulnerability and ethnic conflicts. April-September will be the worst period of the hunger gap.

Humanitarian disaster on the horizon

An estimated 600,000 people are in dire need of food and supplies. According to the reports provided by UN and NGOs, the humanitarian situation within this drought belt has deteriorated since January 2001, when the 2001 Consolidated Appeal (CAP) was revised in light of the drought situation in western, central and southern Sudan. A large-scale humanitarian disaster continues as the lives of the drought-affected population enters a further and more difficult phase.

Life-threatening lack of food and water

SCF UK states that in the worst affected areas one in three children are already suffering from malnutrition and dying due to lack of food, water and emergency medical treatment. Over 400,000 people are critically short of water. The health and nutritional status of pregnant and lactating mothers in Greater Kordofan is deteriorating rapidly.

Populations on the move in desperate search for food and water

Thousands of civilians have fled into towns from rural areas where they have no food left after failed rains and lost harvests in Kordofan and Darfur. People are also walking long distances in search for food and water in West and North Darfur.

Coping mechanisms breaking down

New segments of the Sudanese society are being trapped into a status of vulnerability due to loss of coping mechanisms. It will be three months before any harvest is due. Livestock, which have been the main source of income for herders, are dying from the lack of pasture and water. Insecurity is high due to the loss of livelihoods and displacement. Violence and armed robberies are on the rise.

Internally Displaced Persons from Raja in Western Bahr el Ghazal flee north to South Darfur

In early June 2001, the SPLA attacked Raja and Deim Zubeir in western Bahr El Ghazal. As a result, an estimated 30,000 people, mostly children and women fled towards various destinations in South Darfur. UNICEF immediately activated its Emergency Preparedness and Response Plan and created an Emergency Task Force to assess the situation and co-ordinate the necessary response.

Nile water hit its highest level in 20 years, leaving over 100,000 people homeless

In August, river and flash floods affected Kassala, Sinnar, River Nile, South Darfur, Khartoum States and the Northern State. Estimates indictated that over 100,000 people were without homes and have lost assets including cattle and crops in the field or recently harvested stocks of dura, millet and sorghum. Additionally there was extensive damage to infrastructure and public utilities including schools, mosques, flour mills, co-operative society centres, school buildings, roads etc. There was temporary cessation of schooling activities in the worst affected areas as some schools were badly damaged and others occupied by affected persons.

There were acute needs for relief and shelter items including plastic sheets, tarpaulins, blankets, clothes and household utensils. Additionally there are ongoing threats to health as water sources may have been contaminated because pit latrines caved in and shallow wells were flooded.

2. UNICEF RESPONSE: ACTIVITIES, ACHIEVEMENTS AND CONSTRAINTS

UNICEF RESPONSE FOR DROUGHT

The UNICEF component of the UN drought response (US$ 5,663,752) includes interventions in Kordofan and Darfur states and in the Khartoum/Butana Region, to cover water/sanitation, health/nutrition and education needs of some 900,000 people, including 31,500 children under-one and 144,000 children under five.

Water and Environmental Sanitation (WES)

The WES project aims to increase access to safe drinking water for 500,000 people and to facilitate sanitation and hygiene education for some 100,000 people in selected drought affected communities. The project will rehabilitate 58 water wells and 770 handpumps, drill 75 new boreholes with handpumps, construct 950 household latrines and 19 school latrines. For project support, seven vehicles and spare parts for rehabilitation of 9 drilling rigs will be procured, and training provided in Operation and Maintenance skills. To raise awareness and promote good hygiene practices, 65 hygiene education and social mobilisation sessions will be conducted.

Health

The health project will ensure six antigen immunisation for children under one year, in order to reduce or prevent the rise of morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases. Essential drugs will be pre-positioned and distributed for the treatment of acute respiratory diseases (ARI), diarrhoea, malaria and scabies. Emergency preparedness and response training will be conducted for health workers on disease surveillance, especially for cholera and meningitis. The project will also pre-position and distribute basic delivery and maternal care kits to ensure safe pregnancy, labour and postnatal care for pregnant women.

Nutrition

UNICEF is conducting rapid nutritional status surveys of children under five. BP-5 and Unimix is being provided for blanket therapeutic and supplementary nutrition for some 76,000 children under five. To prevent further deterioration of the current protein energy malnutrition and micronutrient deficiency among pregnant and lactating mothers, the project will ensure that 70% of malnourished, pregnant, and lactating mothers have access to supplementary or therapeutic feeding.

Education

The drought situation is also impacting education, particularly for 75,000 nomadic school-aged children, who will be compelled to move southwards with their families looking for food and water for themselves and their animals. The project will ensure access to basic education for 250,000 children from nomadic to settled communities in drought-affected states. This will include rehabilitating and establishing emergency classrooms, providing educational materials and equipment, providing school uniforms to 25 % of the affected children (especially girls), and training teachers on environmental issues, household skills and natural disasters management.

DROUGHT RESPONSE ACTIVITIES

With funds received from ECHO and the Netherlands government, and borrowing supplies from project stocks (which will need to be replenished), UNICEF has undertaken the following interventions in the drought affected areas. Some of the achievements follow:

Water and Environmental Sanitation

  • Ten drilling rigs operating in the drought-stricken areas: 8 in Darfur and Kordofan Regions, and two in east and rural Khartoum.
  • 360 new boreholes drilled in Darfur, Kordofan, Gedarif/Kassala, Blue Nile and rural Khartoum.
  • 161 new hand-pumps installed (88 in Drafur, 28 in Blue Nile, 28 in Gedarif/Kassala, and 17 in rural Khartoum).
  • 876 community hand-pumps rehabilitated (453 in Kordofan, 341 in Darfur, 34 in Gedarif/Kassala, and 48 in Blue Nile).
  • 16 water yards rehabilitated in Darfur; rehabilitation of 24 water yards in Kordofan to be completed within the coming months.
  • 161 communities organised to establish village health committees in Kordofan, Darfur, Kassala and Blue Nile.
  • 254 community-based hand-pump mechanics were trained in Darfur, Kordofan, Kassala and Blue Nile.

Health and Nutrition
  • Vaccination against measles commenced for 80% of the 600,000 children (6-59 months old) in the three Darfur and Kordofan states (60 localities) - campaign already completed in 39 localities.
  • Training of 60 midwives on basic antenatal and post natal care delivery in Nyala, South Darfur State delayed till end September.
  • Provision of loose items, intravenous fluids, insecticides disinfectants and sprayers, and essential drugs and nutrition supplements.
  • Financial and technical supported provided to an NGO and SC-UK, in North Darfur to conduct baseline nutritional surveys.
  • Support SC-UK Emergency Health Programme in North Darfur through securing drug supplies to 17 health centres (for 6 months) and 10 clinics in South Darfur.
  • Provision of 40 MT of essential drugs and nutrition material through the respective SMOH of North, South and West Darfur.
  • Provision of 15 MT of essential drugs and 72 MT of nutritional components through UNICEF sub-office in Nyala and Ed Dein.
  • Provision of 18,000 impregnated mosquito bed nets through Nyala sub-office.

Raja IDPs
  • More than 5,000 children vaccinated against child diseases especially measles.
  • Approximately one MT of essential drugs and Oral Rehaydration Solution supplied.
  • 21 MT of BP5 compact food and 45 MT of UNIMIX procured for therapeutic feeding.
  • Five rolls and 50 packs of plastic sheeting, over 5000 impregnated mosquito bed nets and 9000 blankets provided.
  • Over 3000 household utensils distributed.
  • Insecticides and sprayers for vector control provided.
  • Water transported to the temporary site in El Fardos and a water supply system established for the permanent IDP camp (extension pipes, water bladders and taps). In the new IDP site in Ed Daein, WES will install a submersible pump in an existing water yard and establish a distribution system using bladders and taps. UNICEF provided collapsible water tanks.
  • Co-ordination of the transportation of IDPs stranded en route using US$ 26,000 emergency funds provided by UNICEF, UNOCHA and WFP.
  • Contributed US$ 20,000 for the construction of proper shelter for IDPs in Buram, with OXFAM (UK) and the Humanitarian Assistance Commission (HAC). 750 huts have been constructed to date.
  • With IRC, UNICEF constructed 1,250 latrines in Buram, Fardos and Ed Daein.
  • With ICRC and SC-UK, UNICEF is investigating cases of separated children with the aim of reunifying them with their families.

UNICEF INTERVENTIONS FOR FLOOD RESPONSE

UNICEF as a member of the Emergency Task Force headed by the Sudan Government Humanitarian Aid Commission participated in rapid assessments of the most affected areas in White Nile and Sennar States and Kas District of South Darfur and in areas surrounding Juba. UNICEF distributed supplies worth US$ 100,000 including emergency drug kits, ORS, mosquito nets, BP5 biscuits, water purification tablets, plastic sheeting, blankets and soap. All stocks of relief and shelter supplies in the warehouse have now been distributed with zero stock available should any further emergencies arise.

UNICEF Sudan has made grassroots peace building and the rights of children the central theme of all its work in Sudan. UNICEF seeks to increase its interventions in health, nutrition, provision of safe water and basic education, in assisting communities to resolve their differences at the grassroots level.

Peace building activities are being discussed with the local NGO Sudanese Women’s Voice for Peace and are aimed at reducing the use of small arms. Grassroots peace building has focussed on support for a women-led community-based conflict resolution process involving the Lou and Jikany Nuer in Upper Nile. In South Kordofan (Nuba) the Peace Centre of the University of Dilling and a local NGO, Badya, have been supported to organize peace-building training for teachers and community leaders in Kadugli and Dilling. A local committee has been established to work on improving relations between the Hawazma and local Nuba.

Four training workshops on the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) have been held to train officers from Sudanese armed forces. A meeting of experts on the issue of female genital mutilation (FGM) has been convened and a policy dialogue on legal reform started with Federal and States Governments. At the village level, awareness-raising activities are ongoing in Kordofan and Darfur.

UNICEF is committed to providing assistance to children abducted by the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) in south Sudan. The small contribution received against the 2001 CAP was used to establish a reception centre in Juba and towards the running costs of a transit care centre in Khartoum where children are documented and given medical care pending return to Uganda. However, the extreme shortfall in funds means that UNICEF is diverting its regular resources from other areas of child protection and human rights promotion, and unless further resources are received the LRA operation will grind to a halt.

UNICEF continues to support the Committee for the Eradication of Abduction of Women and Children (CEAWC) and the work of the joint Dinka/Baggara community committees on the issue of abduction of children and women from Bahr al-Ghazal. Progress is far slower than acceptable. From late 1999 until end May 2001, some 670 children and women have been reunited with their families, over 270 are in foster or transit care and the cases of another 400 currently being verified. Since January there have been new abductions by militia forces guarding the military train moving between Babanusa and Wau - estimates range between 80 to over 400 women and children. It is reported that over 80 people have been abducted in the Kuajok area alone between January and April. There has been no progress in bringing children and women to the south for family reunification, partly because of insecurity but largely because the Government of Sudan has not given the necessary clearance.

3. APPEAL REQUIREMENTS, RECEIPTS AND CURRENT NEEDS

UNICEF OLS northern sector requested US$ 25,893,732 within the 2001 UN Consolidated Appeal Process (CAP) for its programme interventions. To date, only 36% of UNICEF’s total requirements have been met. The table below shows the latest funding status of the 2001 CAP by sector.

Table 1: 2001 APPEAL REQUIREMENTS AND FUNDING
AS OF SEPTEMBER 2001
Sector
Target (US$)
Funded
(US$)
%Funded
Unfunded (US$)
Grassroots Peace Building
     525,000
    41,884
8
   483,116
Human Rights Promotion
  1,115,000
   235,545
21
   879,455
CNSPM
  1,697,000
   158,038
  9
 1,538,962
Relief & Shelter
  1,100,000
   119,215
11
    980,785
Logistics Support
  1,724,000
1,232,249
71
     491,751
Health
  4,980,000
3,520,925
71
  1,459,075
Nutrition
  1,780,000
1,460,783
82
     319,217
WES
  3,035,000
   188,478
  6
  2,846,522
Basic Education
  1,500,000
   370,329
25
  1,129,671
Mines Awareness
     297,000
     297,000
Monitoring & Evaluation
     310,000
     61,835
20
     248,165
Drought Response
  5,663,752
1,884,302
33
  3,779,450
Nuba mountains Assistance
  1,351,500
     41,884
  3
  1,309,616
Raja IDPs
     815,480
     815,480
TOTAL
25,893,732
9,315,466
36
16,578,265

The following table shows the funds received by donor. Largest contributions have been received from Japan at US$ 2.2 million, followed by ECHO (US$ 1.8 million) and Canada (US$ 1.3 million).

Table 2 : CONTRIBUTIONS TO 2001 APPEAL BY DONOR
AS OF SEPTEMBER 2001
Donor
Income/Pledge (US$)
Sector
Canada
   1,313,715
Special Protection , Shelter, Nutrition
Denmark
      284,352
Logistics
ECHO
   1,855,968
Logistics, Health, Drought
Finland
     115,296
Health
Japan
  2,224,560
Health
Netherlands
  1,040,000
Shelter, Nutrition, Education, Special Protection, Drought
Norway
     533,797
Drought
Italy
    562,137
Health, Nutrition, Planning, CRC
OPEC
    200,000
Health
Sweden
    764,383
WES, Education, Human Rights, Peace Building, Logistics, Nuba Mountains
USAID/OFDA
    397,523
Health, Nutrition
Others
      23,735
Education
TOTAL
9,315,466

4. IMPACT OF UNDER-FUNDING AND CURRENT PRIORITIES

With very little carry-over money from the CAP 2000 contributions available, and only 36% of UNICEF’s CAP 2001 requirements funded, UNICEF Sudan is urgently seeking funds for its emergency programmes for relief and shelter, peacebuilding, human rights promotion, child protection, health, logistics and for drought response. The table below outlines the urgent priority requirements.

Table 3: PRIORITY REQUIREMENTS
AS OF SEPTEMBER 2001
Project
Beneficiaries/coverage
Required (US$)
1. Flood  Response
  • 100,000 people in flooded areas
  • Emergency Relief and Shelter items including plastic sheeting, blankets, household utensils, jerry cans 
800,000
2. Drought Response
  • 900,000 in the drought affected areas
4,000,000
3. Grass Roots Peace Building
Human Rights Promotion
Child Protection (CNSPM)
  • Children and women in war-affected and conflict areas
500,000
4. Raja IDPs
  • Relief and shelter items
  • Health and Nutrition Interventions
  • Water and Environmental Sanitation

800,000

5. Water and Environmental Sanitation 
  • Rehabilitation of the only water yard in Pibor to benefit 20-25,000 people
  • Drilling and installation of HPs in 25 GW endemic locations in North Jonglei to prevent inter-ethnic conflicts over water sources
50,000

30,000

Further details of the Sudan Emergency Programme can be obtained from:

Thomas Ekvall
UNICEF Representative
Sudan
Tel: + 249 11 473 462
Fax: + 249 11 471 126
Email: tekvall@unicef.org

Robin Medforth-Mills
UNICEF EMOPS
Geneva
Tel: + 41 22 909 5554
Fax: + 41 22 909 5902
Email: rmmills@unicef.org

Dan Rohrmann
UNICEF PFO
New York
Tel: 1 212 326 7009
Fax: 1 212 326 7175
Email: drohrmann@unicef.org

For more information, visit the UNICEF website at http://www.unicef.org