A. Situation analysis
Description of the disaster
The protracted clashes between Sudan Government forces and armed movements in Darfur Region besides the Inter-tribal tensions continued to cause widespread civilian displacements and disruption of basic services over the past years, lately in the Jebel Marra area, increasing the humanitarian needs. The government estimates that over 2 million people are still displaced in 2016, with the majority displaced across Darfur region where 1.6 million people are living in IDP camps. Access is restricted to some areas that is still experiencing active conflict.
By June 2016, some 3.3 million people were in need of humanitarian assistance in Darfur. About 80,000 people were newly displaced across Darfur during the first five months of 2016. And an additional 127,000 people were also reportedly displaced (in addition to another 15,000 who have reportedly returned) but the UN and partners have been unable to verify these figures due to a lack of access to the relevant locations.
By mid-January 2016, conflict erupted between the government forces and armed movement in Jebel Marra area in Darfur. About 129,000 civilians were displaced as a result, majority to North Darfur state. Emergency supplies have been delivered to many of the newly displaced people but significant support is still needed until they are able to return home.
According to the Ministry of Health (MoH), as of 11 December 2015, a total of 571 suspected dengue fever cases, including 133 deaths, were reported in Sudan since the outbreak started. Darfur states were the most affected, Kassala and Kordofan being the other regions affected. Earlier during the year, measles outbreak was also declared in the country. The outbreak started in late December 2014, and affected Kassala and Gedaref States by January 2015. In April, the outbreak was reported in Sinnar, the Red Sea, West, East, and North Darfur states. Fifty-two (52) localities in South, North, East and Central Darfur were affected. Darfur states were among the worst affected due to Measles, dengue fever outbreak and malaria during the second half of the year in Sudan.
In addition, due to fighting erupted in Raja (West Bahr, South Sudan) on June 15, 2016, Five thousand two hundred and forty-four (5,244) South Sudanese refugees (802 households) arrived in East Darfur. Majority of them in urgent need of shelter, WASH, health and nutritional assistance. SRCS with the assistance from UNHCR has been providing refugees with NFIs and shelter materials in East Darfur, although gaps still remain to be filled. Meanwhile, new sites have been identified to accommodate South Sudanese refugees in Khor Omer, in East Darfur.
According to OCHA - as of July 3rd 2016, 79,571 people from South Sudan had arrived in Sudan since January 1st, 2016 (of whom 53,273 in East Darfur). Out of these, roughly 38,000 arrived since the beginning of June 2016. According to UNHCR, the total number of South Sudanese arrivals in Sudan now stands at 187,747, of whom over 100,000 have received some form of humanitarian assistance. According to the Sudanese Humanitarian Aid Commission, the total number of South Sudanese in Sudan is almost half a million (including South Sudanese who stayed in Sudan after the separation).
On 20 May 2015, IFRC launched an Emergency Appeal (EA), which sought 3,934,859 Swiss francs to support Sudan Red Crescent Society (SRCS) address emergency health, hygiene promotion, water and sanitation, emergency shelter including basic household items, targeting 389,930 people in the Darfur region, for a period of 12 months. The Federation released 178,890 Swiss francs from the Disaster Relief Emergency Fund (DREF) as a “start-up” loan to the EA, as well as goods in kind, which had been prepositioned in-country following the MDRSS021 Floods operation in 2014/15.
The International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, on behalf of the Sudan Red Crescent Society would like to extend many thanks to the American Red Cross, Japanese Red Cross, Saudi Red Crescent Society, Swedish Red Cross and Canadian Red Cross, for their generous financial and in kind contribution toward this operation. A total of 3,025 jerry cans from American Red Cross and 2,500 NFI kits from IFRC stocks were made available for the response. Unfortunately, financial coverage for the International Emergency Plan of Action Appeal remains low at around 14%, mostly due to the protracted nature of the emergency. The last Operations Update provided indication of the intention to revise the MDRSD022 EA based on the priorities within the Emergency Plan of Action (EPoA), the resources available and anticipated income over the remainder of the timeframe of the operation while at the same time extending the timeframe to 31 December, 2016.
Summary of current response
Overview of SRCS response
The SRCS is one of the leading organizations responding to humanitarian needs in Darfur. SRCS has a strong network of volunteers and works in coordination with the state authorities and cluster partners. Major activities supported through IFRC International Appeal include assessments, volunteer trainings, support, cleaning campaigns, rehabilitation of school latrines, health and hygiene activities in 15 selected localities across the 5 states of Darfur. All SRCS activities are implemented in coordination with state authorities and cluster partners. The health and hygiene activities complement on-going National Community Health Volunteers Program supported by Swedish Red Cross through IFRC.
SRCS volunteers also participated and support various health campaigns launched by Ministry of Health (MoH).
A planning meeting for Darfur branches was conducted in August, 2015 and 2 joint monitoring visits undertaken between September-October 2015.Capacity building workshop in Disaster Preparedness /Disaster Response trainings for community volunteers and staff was conducted 16- 18 May 2016, for 20 participants (appeal operation staff and volunteers) 4 from each branch. The 5 branches were supported in carrying out health and WASH needs assessment in the selected localities (for more information, please see needs assessment section below). Decision making on the proposed revision of the appeal was based on the needs assessment. Health clinics that were to be supported under the EA were identified and a WASH support plan developed.
A total of 1,742 volunteers from the 5 branches were involved and supported in various activities through this EA organized by the branch. This included rehabilitation of 19 school latrines, 24 integrated cleaning campaigns and health sessions which directly benefitted about 20,603 people. Health and hygiene promotion campaigns were also carried out in collaboration with local health authorities and have supported 14,412 people.
Due to the latest conflict that took place in Jabal Marra, SRCS actively participated in the distribution of assistance provided by NGOs and other UN agencies in Fanga Suq of central Jabal Marra. Other activities supported through the EA during the reporting period included assistance to about 15,000 persons in Adilla and Abukaringa localities of East Darfur who were displaced as a result of inter-tribal clashes in May 2015, distribution of the Non-Food Items (NFIs) was done in coordination with the United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) and Humanitarian Aid Commission (HAC).
SRCS-IFRC team carried out 2 joint monitoring and support visits. The newly established branches of East and Central Darfur were supported with office furniture, cleaning tools equipment and volunteer support kits for 300 volunteers in 5 branches.
SRCS branches also worked with and supported MoH campaigns against measles, malaria and dengue fever. The campaign also targeted host communities as well as IDP and refugee camps. The campaigns were conducted in collaboration with state public health office. In Darfur, a total of 523 suspected Dengue fever cases including 128 deaths were reported in the period, August - December 2015. Measles outbreak started in December 2014, and affected 11 localities of Kassala and Gedaref States by January 2015. In April, the outbreak was reported in additional 28 localities in Kassala, Sinnar, the Red Sea, West, East and North Darfur states. SRCS volunteers were involved in mobilizing communities and supporting vaccination campaigns conducted by MoH.
SRCS also partners with the World Food Program (WFP), UNHCR and United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) in Darfur for distribution of food, emergency shelter, household supplies and health. The health status and nutritional conditions of targeted South Sudanese refugees in Darfur are unsatisfactory. Many South Sudanese refugees arrived in poor nutritional conditions. Initial assessments have revealed a high rate of malnutrition, especially in children under 5 years, pregnant and lactating women. In North Jebel Marra’s Fanga Suk area, SRCS worked with UNICEF to set up temporary health centres for providing antenatal care services to pregnant women, immunization and nutrition support to children affected by displacement. State Ministry of Health (SMoH) and SRCS, with support from UNICEF also deployed 3 medical assistants and 1 nutrition specialist to provide health assistance. An additional 100 volunteers were deployed to conduct home visits and disseminate health education messages.
Following the conflicts in Jebel Marra in mid-January, the SRCS in collaboration with WFP distributed food items for 99,232 individuals in 6-targeted areas in Jabil Marra (Nertati, Tour, Jeldo, Rockero, Fangah, Golo). In the same period, SRCS volunteers also distributed non-food items (4220 blankets, 7000 Jerry cans, 4250 Tarpaulins, 4500 plastic sheets) in collaboration with UNCHR. In addition, SRCS distributed in collaboration with humanitarian aid commission HAC 10,000 boxes of food items in June 2016 in Rockero, and Golo areas, besides 3000 sorghum sacs distributed in Golo and Jeldo.
Financial coverage for the appeal by 24 July was 14%. As mentioned in the previous update, the key challenges for the operation have been:
Low financial coverage which has limited the size and scope of the plans.
Security and humanitarian access in some areas.
Logistics and transportation due to the risk of carjacking and far distances.