2018 IN REVIEW
This Annual Report presents information on the achievements of the Sudan Humanitarian Fund during the 2018 calendar year. However, because grant allocation, project implementation and reporting processes often take place over multiple years (Country Based Pooled Funds (CBPFs) are designed to support ongoing and evolving humanitarian responses), the achievements of CBPFs are reported in two distinct ways:
Information on allocations granted in 2018 (shown in blue). This method considers intended impact of the allocations rather than achieved results as project implementation and reporting often continues into the subsequent year and results information is not immediately available at the time of publication of annual reports.
Results reported in 2018 attributed to allocations granted in 2018 and prior years (shown in orange). This method provides a more complete picture of achievements during a given calendar year but includes results from allocations that were granted in previous years. This data is extracted from final narrative reports approved between 1 January 2018 – 31 January 2019.
Humanitarian Situation in 2018 Sudan is one of the world’s largest protracted humanitarian crises with at least 5.5 million people in need of assistance in 2018. Localized conflict and displacement; food insecurity; malnutrition; disease outbreaks; climatic shocks; and the current macro-economic situation are putting further strain on people’s already stretched coping mechanisms.
Displacements and Returns In 2018 an estimated 27,000 people were displaced, of whom about 19,000 were in Jebel Marra (Darfur) and 8,000 in South Kordofan. At least 35,000 people returned to their areas of origin, while many others may have returned without being recorded. The increase in returns was mainly due to the improved security situation following cessation of hostilities announced by both the Government of Sudan and armed groups. However, many of the returnees continue to depend on humanitarian assistance as they struggle to rebuild their livelihoods.
Food Insecurity Despite the significant reduction in conflict across Sudan, commodity price increases, low household purchasing power and high costs of agricultural supplies and inputs led to increased food insecurity as people find it increasing difficult to afford the local food basket.
The World Food Programme (WFP) Food Security Monitoring System (FSMS) reported a deterioration in food security between November 2017 and November 2018.
Some 69 per cent of households were classified as food insecure, which represents a 3 per cent increase from the same period in 2017. About 70 per cent of South Sudanese refugees in Darfur, were food insecure in November 2018.
Displaced populations in South Darfur were the most food insecurity (74 per cent), followed by Central Darfur and North Darfur with 69 per cent each. Food prices were dramatically higher across Darfur in November 2018 relative to November 2017. In every state, the cost of the local food basket more than doubled within the previous year, and in some areas increasing up to 172 per cent.
Malnutrition Malnutrition is a chronic problem in Sudan. Out of the 18 states, 11 have a malnutrition prevalence above the World Health Organization (WHO) emergency threshold of 15 per cent. Of Sudan’s 184 localities, 128 (69 per cent) have a stunting rate classified as high. Increases in food costs have a knock-on effect, forcing many households to adopt negative coping mechanisms, compromising on the quality and quantity of meals.
Disease Outbreaks Closely linked to high levels of malnutrition are poor health indicators, with significant urban, rural, regional, gender and socioeconomic disparities. Communicable diseases are a major cause for morbidity and mortality in Sudan and the country remains prone to measles, meningitis, acute watery diarrhoea (AWD), dengue fever and most recently chikungunya. In 2018, 19,000 chikungunya cases were reported across the country between 31 May and 2 October, with the epicenter being Kassala State in eastern Sudan.
Economic Decline The economic situation in Sudan has exacerbated food insecurity. Against the backdrop of reduced foreign exchange and access to international markets and finance, the cost of living increased since January 2018. The consumer price index (CPI) increased hitting 73 per cent in December 2018, up from 52.37per cent in January 2018. This has left many families, especially those most vulnerable, struggling to meet their basic needs. It is estimated that more than 80 per cent of residents and more than 90 per cent of refugees and IDPs cannot afford to buy a local food basket.
Refugees and Asylum Seekers
According to the UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) and the Government’s Commission of Refugees (COR) at least 1 million refugees and asylum-seekers were registered in Sudan in 2018. These include refugees from the Central African Republic (CAR), Chad, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, South Sudan, Syria and Yemen. Sudan is both a transit and destination country for asylum seekers, refugees and economic migrants along the eastern Africa Migratory Route into North Africa and Europe.
An average of 500 to 1,000 new asylum-seekers arrive each month through Sudan’s eastern border and more than 70 per cent migrate onward, becoming exposed to possible human rights violations. The large number of unaccompanied and separated children (UASC) arriving through these routes is of concern. Within this context, there is an urgent need for more durable solutions that support greater self-reliance and enhanced protection of refugees, which also benefits host communities.
- UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
- To learn more about OCHA's activities, please visit https://www.unocha.org/.