Sudan + 1 more

Sudan Crisis Response Plan 2020


IOM Vision

Vision: To adopt an integrated approach to Sudan’s migration challenges in order to support the Government of Sudan (GoS) in both demonstrating the principles and achieving the objectives of good migration governance.

Strategic Framework: Supporting the GoS in building its policies and technical capacity to effectively and humanely address the mobility dimensions of crises in the country, while fulfilling its responsibilities to assist and protect vulnerable mobile populations in accordance with humanitarian principles. In addition, supporting efforts to end displacement and encourage durable solutions by providing communities with key tools to accelerate recovery, transition and socio-economic development and establish an orderly, safe and responsible migration management system able to assist all migrants and benefit Sudan’s development.

Strategic areas of intervention:

  1. Providing timely identification and assessment of vulnerable displaced and affected populations;

  2. Delivering emergency assistance and essential services to meet critical needs;

  3. Building national and local capacity to effectively address the mobility dimensions of crises;

  4. Facilitating internally displaced persons' (IDPs) return, relocation, local integration, and reintegration;

  5. Increasing community stabilisation and strengthening resilience;

  6. Strengthening social cohesion through community-based and institutional capacity building.

Context Analysis

Sudan will continue to face several major overlapping challenges in 2020 due to political, economic, and socio-cultural instability, ongoing protracted displacement, and climatic conditions leading to crisis levels of food insecurity and malnutrition. After months of civil unrest, President Omar Al Bashir was removed from power on 11 April 2019, and a Transitional Military Council was established. Civil protests continued, calling for a further break with the previous regime. In September 2019, a Transitional Government was formed, with peace and the economy as top priorities. Since 2018, Sudan has experienced an economic crisis partially brought on by the former government having to implement economic reforms to reduce billions worth of national debt. The country has been affected by fluctuating exchange rates, devaluation of the Sudanese Pound, increases in rates of inflation and the prices of basic commodities, as well as cash, fuel and food shortages. The economic crisis caused civil unrest and further limited people's purchasing power, with poor and vulnerable groups affected the most, and a significant proportion of the population who previously did not require any assistance now requiring support to prevent them from sliding into a state of increased vulnerability. Due to long-term economic instability, coupled with limited investment in already poor infrastructure and a lack of access to basic services, approximately 9.3 million people are in need of assistance, including 6.2 million people expected to be in need of food and livelihood assistance and 2.7 million children suffering from malnutrition (HNO and HRP 2020); over 1.8 million people suffer from various diseases such as malaria, dengue fever, rift valley fever, cholera, chikungunya, or diphtheria (OCHA Sudan Situation Report Dec. 2019). Parts of the country continue to face natural disasters including frequent floodings, droughts, and desertification, which are further intensified due to the increasing effects of climate change. For example, the Humanitarian Aid Commission estimated that over 350,000 people were affected by heavy rains and flash floods across 17 out of the 18 states in Sudan (OCHA Sudan Situation Report Sept. 2019)

Major conflict in Darfur and South and West Kordofan and Blue Nile between government forces and opposition have largely subsided in 2019 which has led to at least 320,000 returnees going back to their places of origin or opting for local integration. However, instability in Jebel Marra Darfur continues, and has resulted in mass casualties and displacement of people to safer areas of North, South and Central Darfur and remains a concern, with new displacements expected in 2020. The instability in neighbouring countries, especially in South Sudan, has also resulted in thousands of refugees crossing into Sudan seeking protection and assistance, and stretching already limited resources within local communities. As a result of conflicts and other crises, there are approximately 1.87 million IDPs and 1.1 million refugees and asylum seekers (HNO 2020). The majority of IDPs and refugees are living in camps or settlements in peri-urban/urban areas, unable to meet their basic needs, and remain dependent on humanitarian assistance, while returnees are suffering from a lack of access to basic services. Supporting the displaced, those returning and local/host communities in conflict-prone areas will also continue to be a persistent challenge in 2020, requiring interventions that increase community stabilisation, social cohesion and peacebuilding.