Sudan + 8 more

Sudan: Complex Emergency Situation Report # 7 (FY 2006)

Attachments

U.S. AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
BUREAU FOR DEMOCRACY, CONFLICT, AND HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE (DCHA)
Note: The last situation report was dated December 23, 2005

BACKGROUND

On January 9, 2005, the Government of Sudan (GOS) and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM) signed the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) officially ending Africa's longest running civil war. During the 21-year conflict, fighting, famine, and disease killed more than 2 million people, forced an estimated 600,000 people to seek refuge in neighboring countries, and displaced 4 million people within Sudan -- the largest internally displaced person (IDP) population in the world. In accordance with the CPA, the presidency of Sudan's Government of National Unity (GNU) was officially established in Khartoum on July 9, 2005. The interim national constitution authorized the creation of the Government of Southern Sudan (GOSS) and initiated a six-year interim period, after which the south will hold a referendum on whether to become an independent country.

In February 2003, a separate conflict began in Darfur, western Sudan, when the locally based Sudan Liberation Movement/Army (SLM/A) attacked GOS security forces in the town of El Fasher, North Darfur. The ensuing humanitarian emergency in Darfur now affects more than 3.5 million people, including more than 1.7 million IDPs and approximately 220,000 refugees in eastern Chad. Resolving the crisis in Darfur remains critical to consolidating a national peace and addressing the simmering conflict in eastern Sudan.

The U.S. Government (USG) held a lead position in the sustained international effort to galvanize the North-South peace process that culminated in the signing of the CPA, while simultaneously working to ensure humanitarian access to conflict-affected populations. The USG continues to be the largest international donor in Sudan and maintains a robust presence in the country. The following situation report concentrates on humanitarian conditions and USAID activities throughout Sudan.

NUMBERS AT A GLANCE
SOURCE
IDPs in Sudan Total: 6,100,000
From Southern Sudan: 4 million, In Darfur: 1.76 million
UNHCR(1) -- November 2005
OCHA(2) -- December 2005
Sudanese Refugees Estimated Total: 220,000
In Chad
UNHCR -- November 2005
Sudanese Refugees Total: 550,000
In Uganda, Ethiopia, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Kenya, Central African Republic, Egypt, and Eritrea
UNHCR -- April 2005
Refugees in Sudan Total: 170,000
From Eritrea, Ethiopia, Uganda, DRC, and others
UNHCR -- November 2005

Total FY 2005 -- 2006 USAID Humanitarian Assistance to Sudan and Eastern Chad: $797,713,451

Total FY 2005 -- 2006 USG Humanitarian Assistance to Sudan and Eastern Chad: $899,985,988(3)

CURRENT SITUATION

Insecurity Mounts in West Darfur. On January 5, the U.N. Department of Safety and Security (UNDSS) announced the withdrawal of U.N. staff not engaged in life-sustaining programs from specific areas of West Darfur. The departure was in response to increasing insecurity in the region, including intensified fighting, border clashes, banditry, and increased presence of armed elements inside Geneina town. Life-sustaining operations continue from Geneina north through Kulbus to Tine, and southwest to Beida and Arara, excluding the Habillah administrative unit. Following advice from OCHA, several non-governmental organizations had also withdrawn staff from the area. U.N. agencies and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) operating in West Darfur recently began contingency planning in the event of large-scale population displacements due to rising insecurity.

According to the African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS), on January 6, unidentified armed elements ambushed an AMIS convoy traveling from Tine, North Darfur to a base in Kulbus, West Darfur. One AMIS peacekeeper died in the incident and 10 others suffered injuries. The attack followed a November 30 ambush of AMIS troops in Kulbus that resulted in the injury of five peacekeepers.

Tensions Increase in Eastern Sudan. On January 11, UNDSS confirmed that an unknown number of Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) ground troops entered Hamesh Koreib in the opposition-held area of eastern Sudan, raising concerns over a possible confrontation between SAF and the military wing of the Eastern Front opposition group. Two USAID partners reported withdrawing expatriate staff from Hamesh Koreib. On January 12, a UN spokesperson in Sudan confirmed sending a team to the area to assess the situation.

New Displacements in West Darfur. According to the U.N. Mission in Sudan (UNMIS), intertribal fighting near Abata in the Zalengei area of West Darfur resulted in an estimated 3,800 new arrivals to two Zalengei camps, as well as an additional 5,000 to 6,000 IDPs reportedly stranded northwest of the conflict area. Fighting in Abata began several months ago, but IDPs were only able to reach Zalengei town to seek assistance in recent weeks.

Firewood Patrols Begin in Kalma Camp. On December 17, the first of regularly scheduled joint government police and AMIS firewood patrols began in Kalma camp on the outskirts of Nyala, South Darfur. The patrols occur three times weekly at regularly programmed times. AMIS and government police meet approximately 1,500 women from the camp in the morning and escort the women as they gather firewood and grass. According to an NGO working in the camp, only one attack on women collecting firewood has been reported since the patrols began.

Food Security in Northern Bahr el Ghazal. According to a January 3 report from USAID's Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET), food security improved in the Western Flood Plains Zone of Northern Bahr el Ghazal between October and December. FEWS NET attributed the progress to a successful sorghum and groundnut harvest, as well as to increased access to fish and livestock products. While temporary improvements were noted, FEWS NET emphasized the chronic nature of food insecurity in the state due to persistent food production and access challenges related to decades of conflict.

Refugee Repatriation to Southern Sudan. In December 2005, the Office of the U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) carried out the first in a series of organized repatriation movements of Sudanese refugees to Southern Sudan. The first group, consisting of 131 refugees from Kakuma camp in Kenya, traveled via passenger airplanes and land convoys to Jonglei and Eastern Equatoria states. UNHCR forecasted assisting an additional 10,000 Sudanese refugees from Kakuma and 45,000 refugees from other neighboring countries to return home in 2006. An additional 85,000 refugees are projected to return home spontaneously in 2004.

U.S. Congressional Delegation Visit. On January 6, Congressman Jim Kolbe (R-AZ), Congressman Dennis Rehberg (R-MT), and Congresswoman Betty McCollum (D-MN) traveled to Juba to visit three USAID/DCHA-supported projects and meet with GOSS officials. The delegation viewed progress of a market clean up campaign that incorporated food-for-work and cash-for-work components. The delegation then visited the Juba Teaching Hospital where a USAID/DCHA-funded program manages the renovation and expansion of the emergency ward. The group then viewed four new water pumps, procured with USAID/DCHA funds, at the Juba Urban Water Corporation. Finally, the delegation traveled to North Darfur to view USAID/DCHA-funded programs at Abu Shouk camp and meet with UN, AMIS, and NGO representatives.

Notes:

(1) Office of the U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees

(2) U.N. Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs

(3) For a complete breakdown of FY 2005 Sudan funding, please see: http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/humanitarian_assistance/disaster_assistance/countries/sudan/fy2006/sudan_ce_sr01_10-14-2005.pdf

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