In 2007, Sudan continues to cope with the effects of conflict, displacement, and insecurity countrywide. During more than two decades of conflict between the former Government of Sudan (GOS) and the southern-based Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A), fighting, famine, and disease killed more than 2 million people, forced an estimated 600,000 people to seek refuge in neighboring countries, and displaced 4 million people within Sudan-the largest internally displaced person (IDP) population in the world. The former GOS and the SPLM signed the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) and formed the joint Government of National Unity (GNU) in 2005, officially ending the North-South conflict. The U.N. estimated that hundreds of thousands of displaced persons returned to Southern Sudan from 2005 to 2007, taxing scarce resources and weak infrastructure.
Conflict in the western region of Darfur has entered its fourth year, despite a peace agreement between the GNU and one faction of the Sudan Liberation Army (SLA), signed in May 2006. Fighting among armed opposition group factions, Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF), and militias persisted throughout 2006, displacing hundreds of thousands of civilians. The complex emergency in Darfur is affecting approximately 4.2 million people. The U.S. Government (USG) is the leading international donor to Sudan and has contributed more than $2 billion for humanitarian programs in Sudan and eastern Chad since FY 2004. The U.S. Mission in Sudan has declared disasters due to the complex emergency on an annual basis since 1987. On October 16, 2006, U.S. Chargé d'Affaires Cameron R. Hume renewed the Sudan disaster declaration for FY 2007. The USG continues to lead the international effort to support implementation of the CPA, while providing for the humanitarian needs of conflict-affected populations throughout the country.
NUMBERS AT A GLANCE
|IDPs in Sudan||From Southern Sudan: 3.7 million
In Darfur: 2.1 million
In Eastern Sudan: 70,000
|Sudanese Refugees||From Darfur: 234,000
From Non-Darfur Sudan: 280,000
|Refugees in Sudan||From Eritrea, Ethiopia, Uganda, DRC, and others: 150,000||UNHCR-January 2007|
HUMANITARIAN FUNDING PROVIDED TO DATE (FY 2006 AND FY 2007)
USAID/OFDA(3) Assistance to Sudan and Eastern Chad: $236,147,867
USAID/FFP(4) Assistance to Sudan and Eastern Chad: $843,521,200
USAID/OTI(5) Assistance to Sudan and Eastern Chad: $44,856,901
State/PRM(6) Assistance to Sudan and Eastern Chad: $173,657,341
Total USAID and State Humanitarian Assistance to Sudan and Eastern Chad: $1,298,183,309
CURRENT SITUATION IN DARFUR
In May, attacks in North and South Darfur, including SAF aerial bombardment of villages, have resulted in new displacement and further limited humanitarian access, increasing the total number of IDPs in Darfur to more than 2.1 million. Insecurity continues to hamper aid agencies' access to vulnerable rural populations.
According to OCHA, out of 4.2 million conflict affected people in Darfur an estimated 900,000 cannot be accessed by any aid agency due to insecurity. In May, USAID/DCHA staff conducted assessments in Kalma and Gereida IDP camps in South Darfur, Kutum town in North Darfur, and Mukjar town in West Darfur.
(1) U.N. Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
(2) Office of the U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees
(3) USAID's Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance
(4) USAID's Office of Food for Peace
(5) USAID's Office of Transition Initiatives
(6) U.S. Department of State's Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration