Sudan

Sudan: Assessment of conflict affected populations in Kabkabiya & Kutum localities, North Darfur state

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
This report presents the main findings and recommendations of a short study on conflict affected populations in Kabkabiya and Kutum Localities, north Darfur. The Darfur Assessment Mission (DAM) Consortium committee provided the terms of reference for the assessment. In total 6 institutions (one INGO, 3 National NGOs and 2 Networks) participate in the D.A.M. consortium with the objective of co-operative humanitarian intervention in Darfur based on the following specific aims:-

a) Response to immediate and urgent needs at the grass root level.

b) Disaster prevention.

c) Peace building and reconciliation.

The main objective of this assessment is to collect data regarding the humanitarian situation and needs of conflict affected populations in Kabkabiya & Kutum Localities, which is necessary to plan accordingly for an emergency intervention. The following methodologies were employed during the course of the assessment Household Questionnaire Semi-structured interviews Key informant interviews Group interviews Oral testimonies & systematic observation Focus group discussions. The project began in June 2004 and an assessment team was present in the study area between 2nd and 25th July 2003. The team consisted of six persons, three of whom were female in addition to 31 supporting staff from the community. The main findings of the assessment are as follows:- In North Darfur State as a whole, there are 481,697 conflict affected people 113,910 in Kabkabiya Locality & 122,517 in Kutum Locality (OCHA, July 2004). The respondents to the household survey were drawn from a range of different age groups. 55.7% & 52.0% of respondents in Kabkabiya and Kutum were respectively male. More than 70% of the households surveyed were dependant on farming as their main livelihood. Approximately two thirds of all respondents had not attended any type of formal schooling. 58.5% & 53.2% of household in Kabkabiya & Kutum respectively were headed by the father. Over 90% of all those canvassed stated that they had become displaced due to conflict. Armed groups were listed as the main cause of displacement. Almost half of respondents felt that children were the most affected by conflict. In general, females were found to be suffering the greatest hardship due to conflict. Approximately, a quarter stated that a member of their household had been wounded as a result of conflict.

Details regarding a number of cases of rape were also confirmed.

Negotiation/dialogue followed closely by the Native administration was seen as the most effective mechanism for conflict resolution. The government was seen as the main instigator of human rights abuses followed by tribes and armed groups. About 46.8% of all respondents suggested improved security and protection as the most effective solution to violence in the area. In Kabkabiya, the majority of IDPs expected to remain in their present location for up to 12 months; while in Kutum, most felt that they would only stay for a maximum of 6 months. Housing/shelter was listed first as the most immediate need; followed by medicine, food, clean water and clothing. The majority of respondents were housed in temporary tented accommodation of less than 100m2 in size. Schooling was given as the most common answer regarding near future needs. Approximately, two thirds of all respondents planned to return home in the near future. Security was seen as the main prerequisite for return. Over 50% used open air pit latrines for the disposal of human waste. Rubbish was most frequently disposed of on open ground or through burning. In Kabkabiya, 75.9% drew water for their household needs from a well; while in Kutum 60.9% used hand pumps. 60.3% in Kabkabiya felt that local water supplies were polluted, but in Kutum only 18.0% stated that the water was unclean. Two third were reliant on aid/relief for the household s basic food needs. Wood was the most common fuel used for cooking. Approximately, a third of those canvassed had access to a medical doctor; however, a sizeable heath service gap was identified in Kabkabiya. Malnutrition was stated as a major issue especially in Kabkabiya. United Nations Organizations and International NGOs were the main bodies delivering humanitarian assistance. About 80.0% & 62.9% of respondents in Kabkabiya & Kutum respectively were currently receiving humanitarian assistance. The mission initiative was highly appreciated at all levels (Community, locality, State and National.) Based on the above findings, the report concludes that the North Darfur region faces a severe and complex emergency situation. However, the impact of conflict on the region has not been uniform. The survey identified a number of important differences between the needs of the affected populations in the two target sites. In general terms, the main issues in Kabkabiya were shelter/housing, supply of basic drugs, clean water and schooling. In Kutum, the pressing issues were security and protection, housing/shelter, return, schooling and sanitation. It is the recommendation of this report that the D.A.M. members to tackle the urgent needs of target populations initiate an immediate humanitarian programme.

1. INTRODUCTION & BACKGROUND

1.1. Darfur Assessment Mission (D.A.M.)

Conflict in Darfur has left a substantial humanitarian toll on the populations of the region. Faced with this situation, many sections of Sudan s civil society have sought ways to address the issue of Darfur . The Darfur Assessment Mission (D.A.M.) is one such departure. Initiated by ACORD & n(o)vib to mobilize a national response to the crisis, the consortium comprises of 1 INGO 3 NNGOs and 2 Networks working in the spirit of cooperation and partnership. The following organizations are members of the D.A.M. consortium ACORD Sudan Environmental Conservation Society (SECs) Kabkabiya Development and Reconstruction Organizations (KADRO) Human Rights & Legal Aid Network (HRLAN) al Massar Charity Organisation for Nomads Development & Environmental Conservation (MONEC) Sudanese Civil Society Network for the Alleviation of Poverty (SCSNAP) (See Annex D: Profile of Organizations). The consortium was assembled in June 2004 and is managed by a Steering Committee (SC) drawn from each of the member organizations and is tasked with responding to the following objectives and concerns:-

a) Respond to immediate and urgent needs at the grass root level.

b) Disaster prevention.

c) Peace building and reconciliation.

The SC under the overall direction of the Chairman is also responsible for directing the consortium s activities through the individual member organizations and ensuring a transparent, democratic and non-partisan approach to its work. After initial contacts and discussions, the steering committee began by tasking the consortium members with the job of undertaking a rapid assessment of conflict-affected areas. Kabkabiya and Kutum Localities in North Darfur State were chosen, on the basis of good local presence by D.A.M. members and the urgent needs of people in these districts. The assessment aims to provide a firm foundation from which to build relevant and timely interventions. This report represents the first joint Sudanese civil society assessment of the conflict in Darfur. Its findings and recommendations are seen as an important local contribution to the efforts currently being made in the region. The report also marks an end to the initial start-up phase of the D.A.M. and the beginning of the process to transform the consortium into a mechanism for real action in addressing Darfur's problems.

1.2. Objectives

The objective of this study, as outlined by the terms of reference, is to collect data regarding the humanitarian situation and needs of conflict affected populations in Kabkabiya & Kutum Localities, which is required for planning emergency interventions. The explicit objectives are as follows:- To establish accurate data about conflict affected populations especially Internally Displaced Populations (IDPs). To identify the key issues affecting the target populations i.e. food security, shelter, education, health, water etc. To identify the distribution and current activities of both state and non-state actors in the target area. To highlight gender aspects of the humanitarian situation. To recommend specific areas of intervention in the form of emergency relief projects aimed at meeting immediate needs, disaster prevention and conflict resolution/peace building.

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MAP - North Darfur: IDP concentrations

MAP - North Darfur: Sketch maps