Special Report: 2019 FAO Crop and Food Supply Assessment Mission (CFSAM) to the Sudan (28 February 2020)



Between 24 November and 14 December 2019, assisted by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and other partners, the Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources (MoANR) carried out its annual Assessment Mission to determine crop production and food supply situation throughout the 18 states of the country. The Mission consisted of six core teams comprising members from the MoANR, the Food Security Technical Secretariat (FSTS) of the MoANR, the Ministry of Animal Resources and Fisheries (MoARF), the Humanitarian Aid Commission (HAC), the Strategic Reserve Corporation (SRC), FAO, FEWS NET, WFP and USAID.


  • The national total production of sorghum and millet in 2019/20 is estimated at 5.1 million tonnes, 36 percent below the previous year’s record output and 18 percent less than the past five-year average.

  • Sorghum production is forecast at about 4 million tonnes, 26 percent lower than the level of the previous year and 19 percent less than the past five-year average. The national millet production is estimated at 1.1 million tonnes, 63 percent lower than the record production of 2018 and 16 percent less than the average of the past five years.

  • The decline in production is mainly due to contracted cereal plantings as farmers shifted to more remunerative cash crops (sesame and groundnuts), compounded by lower yields resulting from unfavourable weather conditions and pest infestation.

  • The 2019 rainy season was characterized by an irregular distribution of rains. After an early onset in May and long dry spells in July, torrential rains triggered floods in August.
    Unusual abundant precipitation was also recorded in September and October.

  • Production of wheat, to be harvested in March 2020, is forecast at 727 000 tonnes, more than 30 percent above the previous five-year average, reflecting enlarged plantings.

  • Production of sesame and groundnuts is estimated to have increased in 2019 to an above average level, on account of expanded plantings prompted by higher year-on-year market prices and strong demand for exports.

  • Constraints on the availability of, and accessibility to, inputs were reported as a result of high and increasing inflation, which also led to soaring costs of production.

  • The incidence of pests, diseases and weeds on national crop production was significantly higher than in the previous years.

  • Abundant rains and improved security situations increased the availability of pastures and water for livestock. However, the expansion of the cropped area at the expense of pastures and animal routes resulted in growing conflicts between farmers and pastoralists in some parts of the country.

  • Livestock health at the time of the Mission was good and no major disease outbreaks were observed.

  • The annual vaccination campaign was affected by severe shortages of vaccines and medicines.

  • High and increasing inflation rates have been recorded in 2019, reaching over 60 percent in November. Food/beverage and housing sectors contributed the most to the upward trend in the inflation rate by about 60 and 10 percent, respectively.

  • Although the official exchange rate was pegged at SDG 45 per US Dollar since April 2019, USD 1 was traded for up to SDG 88 as of mid-December in the parallel market. The weakening of the Sudanese Pound consequently put upward pressure on prices, especially those of imported goods, including fuel and wheat.

  • Prices of locally produced sorghum (feterita) and millet began to rise from late 2017 and continued the increasing trend in 2019. In December 2019, prices of staple grains were 65-130 percent higher, year on year.