Sudan

New Sudanese Indigenous NGOs (NESI) Consolidated Emergency Appeal Jul 2001


Situation Analysis in the New Sudan: An Overview
The New Sudanese Indigenous NGOs united in the NESI-network are working for long term development at grassroots level since many years. They wish to express to the outside world that at present a very serious famine looms across the areas of New Sudan. The war in Sudan has dragged on from 1983 to-date, which makes the civilian population to continue suffering from the effects of the war and natural calamities. The NESI NGOs have not addressed this continuous crisis situation by a focus on emergency relief, but by developing on the ground development programs. Nevertheless, they see that this year's famine is probably one of the worst ever experienced in recent history, if not the worst. This necessitates a collective effort in emergency relief, for which this first ever Sudanese-NGO Consolidated Appeal has been developed. Through this appeal, the NESI NGOs want to present the international community the vision, strategies and strength of the emerging New Sudan civil society needed in the present humanitarian crisis in Sudan. They wish to further develop partnership with the donor community active in emergency relief, rehabilitation and development in the New Sudan as only through joining hands and combining all efforts, the humanitarian crisis can be addressed effectively.

There are at least three main underlying factors causing the present exceptional situation in the New Sudan:

1. The intensification and escalation of the war by the GOS, particularly aerial bombardment and ground troop movements in specific areas, now followed by SPLM counter attacks;

2. The oil activities - directly causing a depopulation of people from the oil exploitation zones in southern Sudan (Upper Nile), which is resulting in an extremely large influx of internally displaced persons (IDPs) in adjacent areas;

3. The persistent drought situation that has been experienced over the last few years.

Since March 2000, the government of Khartoum started a ruthless military campaign targeting the civilian population in the SPLM controlled areas of New Sudan. Almost throughout the New Sudan the population have not been able to cultivate for constant fear of GOS' aerial bombardment. The exploitation of oil in the concession areas in southern Sudan around Bentiu is accompanied by a scorched earth policy of the GoS, causing depopulation of areas in the vicinity of oil exploitation zones. The recent streams of war and oil-IDPs were forced to flee towards almost all directions in the New Sudan especially Southern Blue Nile, Upper Nile, Nuba Mountains and Bahr-El-Ghazal. This influx causes an overburdening for the already vulnerable host communities, who are themselves are as much in dire need of basic necessities. On top of that, the fragile food situation has been hit hard by long spells of drought for quite sometime now in the areas. Due to this exceptional situation, the NESI NGOs feel compelled to now request support for their planned emergency relief operations. Their operations will all be focused on the IDPs in the three most fragile areas of the New Sudan, where the NGOs are working already with their core development programs for the local populations:

  • The Nuba Mountains & Southern Blue Nile, which fall outside the OLS-framework;
  • Bahr- El - Ghazal province where the drought situation is worst in addition to oil-IDPs
  • Bor-County where a combination of factors including; oil-IDPs, drought and volatile insecurity are causing an acute situation.

In the Nuba Mountains (Southern Kordofan), the continued denial of humanitarian access and protection for civilians in the SPLM-controlled areas means only one thing for the civilian population residing there: that the military forces from the Khartoum regime continues to target, abduct and kill ordinary people and do everything within their power to violently displace them from their productive land and means of livelihood and survival. Furthermore, the current drought situation has not helped either. Recent GoS-attacks and SPLM counter moves have resulted in a second wave of IDPs: approximately a total of 85.000 people have taken refuge in the SPLM-controlled areas since November 2000. They are facing acute famine; a need which cannot be addressed by the UN-agencies due to the failure of reaching agreements by the international community with the SPLM/GoS-authorities regarding access. This makes the role of civil society to act here very urgent, with the NESI Member NGO NRRDO on the forefront.

Southern Blue Nile region is not an exemption to this situation this year either. The intensification of the war due to oil exploitation activities by the GOS and consequent policies of depopulating the people living around the oil areas has resulted to a large influx of IDPs into the Region. Furthermore, the Region being one of the peripheries in Sudan has suffered gross neglect in terms of development hence they joined hands in the struggle with the SPLM/A in 1987 in order to address issues pertaining to a just Sudan. As the region is not accessible for OLS, the need to act is obvious for the local NESI Member NGO ROOF.

In Bahr al Ghazal, the region has been in constant attack through raids by the GOS Popular Defense Forces (PDFs), aerial bombardment and long history of drought in recent years. When the PDFs raid, homes are burnt down, property is looted, people are abducted and women are systematically raped. Food that is not carried away is destroyed by the PDFs. Thousands of IDPs have, as a result taken refuge in Wau County and others to Aweil South County, where recent fights for Wau Town have further aggravated the situation. Food and non-food aid needs to be coordinated here, a role which NESI-member HARD takes as the guideline for its project, which focuses on survival kits and seeds/tools to restart local food production.

In Bor county of Upper Nile the situation is compounded by drought, oil related activities by the GOS and repatriation of returnees efforts. The severe drought and other disasters like war and harassment by GOS forces/militia, nearby oil exploitation and inter-factional wars have forced well over a 100,000 IDPs to flee to Bor County. This situation is further creating fear in disrupting on-going efforts of repatriating IDPs back to their home area of Bor from Eastern and Western Equatoria. The three NESI-members involved; WODRANS, SMC and JARRAD will systematically coordinate their efforts with local authorities and international actors in Bor-County. Apart from the first repatriation and relief by JARRAD, special programs for vulnerable groups (widows, orphans and handicapped) of WODRANS are to be combined with water, sanitation, vetinerary services, health by SMC, education for IDP-children by JARRAD and re-establishing local food production by WODRANS.

The present Consolidated Appeal for Emergency Assistance has been developed by Six Sudanese NGOs, all members of the network NESI (New Sudan Indigenous NGO-network*). This Appeal consists of summary proposals, which all focus on assisting IDPs in the following areas of concern:

  • Basic survival needs for immediate relief
  • Agricultural seeds and tools to rehabilitate local food production
  • Health & veterinary services
  • Basic education & skill training to avoid further crisis

The members of NESI, work both inside and outside the framework of OLS and can therefore reach to areas normally not covered by OLS' agencies relief and rehabilitation/development services. The NGOs request financial support only for the newly arrived IDPs in their existing working areas, which guarantees that their field staff is embedded in existing local structures for efficient implementation of project activities. Their approach is defined as follows: whenever food relief is provided by international agencies, the NESI-members will coordinate with these actors and will primarily focus themselves on non-food relief. All the program strategies taken on board by the Sudanese NGOs will combine short-term relief, mid term rehabilitation efforts to revive local food production in combination with the provision of vital basic social services in health & education and skill training. The latter is essential to provide jobs and local fabrication of production means and to enable displaced and hosting communities to prevent further disintegration of the social fabric.

The numerous alarms by local communities, their direct appeals to the field workers of NESI NGOs, in combination with specialized humanitarian reports, are all clear signs of growing malnourishment. It is clearly indicating that at least by June this year, there will be a real human tragedy with the potential loss of hundreds of thousands of people. Almost throughout the New Sudan, poor health and extremely high mortality rates are rampant. It is unfortunate that there are clear predictions that many people are expected to lose their lives due to famine and different ailments. Basic needs such as food, shelter, medicine are needed urgently. The Appealing six NESI Partners; HARD, JARRAD, NRRDO, ROOF, SMC and WODRANS are hereby compassionately appealing to the international humanitarian community to come to the rescue of the overburdened New Sudanese people.

The following document will provide summaries of the project proposals of each individual organisation. Donors who are interested to provide lump sum amounts to the entire appeal can approach the NESI-network officer; those donors who wish to provide support to a specific project, should contact the individual organisation for the detailed project proposals (with cc. to NESI). If a European counterpart is required, or any letters of recommendations or background information regarding NESI and its members, the Netherlands Organisation for International Development Coordination NOVIB can be contacted (see address list annexed).

It should be clear that all appealing NGOs are and have been active on the ground for several years and that they have developed their development programs with full participation of the local communities. In their work, NESI-members take gender equity and participation as guiding principles, next to the belief that advocacy work, human rights documentation is part and parcel of sustainable development. With the appeal at hand, the work will only begin for NESI-members to continue the rehabilitation and development work for both the newly arrived IDPs and the hosting communities in the various areas in the New Sudan. The NESI-members will continue their presence on the ground, also after the end of the present humanitarian crisis. It is worth noting that the appeal may seem rather high, however, this is due to the expensive costs of logistics and transport necessarily needed to ferry the assistance, especially to areas such as Nuba Mountains and south Blue Nile.

It should be noted here that this Appeal was put to the public in May this. However, the situation has since then gotten worse in some areas with more IDPs arriving. In addition, some of the NESI Partners appealing here were able to pledge part of the funds requested. However, it is worth noting that the three NESI Member Organizations namely, JARRAD, SMC and WODRANS, which are appealing here for the situation in Upper Nile have not been able to receive any funds so far. This is despite the fact that in Upper Nile, where the oil fields are physically located, there are tens of thousands of IDPs due to the scorched earth policies conducted by the GOS. Thus, the situation remains extremely vulnerable and needs the world's immediate attention before it gets out of control.

Summary of Total Funding Requested by the *Six NESI Organizations

NESI Consolidated Emergency Appeal

**July 2001
(In US$ Dollars)

No.
Appealing Organization
Amount Required $
1
NRRDO - Nuba Mountains
952,322.00
2
ROOF - Southern Blue Nile
301,550.00
3
HARD - Bahr-El-Ghazal
000.000.00
4
SMC - Bor County
443,176.00
5-A
JARRAD - Bor County
64,436.00
5-B
JARRAD - Bor County
64,102.00
6
WODRANS- Bor County
172,230.00
TOTAL BUDGET REQUESTED
$1,997,816.00

*Note that currently, NESI has a membership of 9 SINGOs (Sudanese NGOs).

**Note that there was an earlier appeal dated May - June 2001, however the situation has changed in some areas since then. In addition, some organizations were able to pledge part of their appeals for funds.

Name of Appealing NGO - 1 NUBA RELIEF, REHABILITATION AND DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION (NRRDO)
Implementing Organization NRRDO
Contacts:
Executive Director, NRRDO,
P.O. Box 37561 Nairobi, Kenya
Tel: 254-2 448540/442717
Fax: 254-2 442717
e-mail: nrrdo@maf.org
Sector EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE
Objective Basic needs assistance to affected population
Project Duration 2 months
Project Location Nuba Mountains, New Sudan
Implementing Partners Local community groups, NESI Partners, SRRA
Targeted Constituents 11,000 IDPs
Total Project Budget $1,227,322.00
Funds Pledged so far $ 275.000 submitted to Dutch Government (DGIS) via NOVIB
Funds Sought $1,227,322.00
Funds still required $952,322

SUMMARY

Since March 2000, the government of Khartoum started a ruthless military campaign targeting the civilian population in the SPLM controlled areas of the Nuba Mountains. The Khartoum government's military offensives were aimed at displacing the civilian population from their productive land and deprive them from their means of livelihood. Today there are about 40,000 internally displaced persons (IDPs) within the SPLM controlled areas of the Nuba Mountains as a result of these offensives.

Over the last two decades the Government of Sudan has systematically taken control of the fertile areas once cultivated and owned by the Nuba people. The current offensive into Buram and restrictions on humanitarian interventions are a continuation of this policy. Still under threat are the remaining surplus areas around Lagawa and Delami County. If these acts of violence against civilians continue and amends are not made, the Nuba people' will lose their lives and livelihood. The intentions of the recent government attacks are clear; to depopulate the areas at all cost in order to secure the oil pipeline and continue exploiting the oil and finance its war machine. Following a prolonged offensive by the Government of Sudan against the civilian population of Buram County, the population has become destitute. The people who were not captured by the GOS are increasingly unable to survive in the SPLM controlled areas where they sought refuge. The poor situation of their hosts, the lack of access to food and non-food markets, and the Government of Sudan blockade of humanitarian relief through insecurity and flight denials have forced many people to move to Kadugli, under their control. Without a humanitarian intervention into the SPLM areas, more people will starve.

Although all the IDPs (around 40,0001) need emergency relief, this urgent appeal targets only the 11,000 recently displaced people in Ngurban County. The need of these 11,000 displaced Nuba people is considered as an urgent priority. These people are left destitute without food or shelter. The capacity of the host communities to continue supporting them is very weak and diminishing due poor rainfall last year and disruption of the harvest season by the December offensives. They need an immediate relief intervention to support them over the next two months and, in the short term, until the next harvest season. It is worth noting that logistics costs to the almost totally isolated Nuba Mountains region can be extremely expensive and costly. The only means for transporting the needed emergency items for the IDPs is by air.

NRRDO, founded in 1993 is the only Sudanese NGO operational in the Nuba Mountains, serving a population of about 400,000 persons. NRRDO 's activities are guided by principle of self-reliance. Transparency, accountability, participation and mutual trust. It advocates for justice, peace and human rights in the Nuba Mountains. On behalf of the Nuba people residing in the SPLM administered areas, NRRDO appeals to all humanitarian organisations to provide material support for the displaced Nuba people in the SPLM administered areas, including food and non-food items, as well as agricultural inputs as quantified below. We thus, as well appeal to the international community to pressure the Government of Sudan to allow balanced humanitarian support to reach the war-affected civilians regardless of their political affiliation. And furthermore, the international community to pressurize the Government of Sudan to halt violence against civilians and return their occupied land.

IDPs Situation

These attacks have left the majority of Buram people destitute. Those who fled within the SPLM controlled areas are unable to find sufficient food and other essential goods and services either locally or from humanitarian agencies. This is for several reasons:

Hosts and relatives are unable to support them - the areas hosting the people displaced depended on Buram's surplus grain to cover their needs. As stated above Nagurban County is structurally the poorest in the region. This is further compounded by low and sporadic rainfall last year making this years harvest even lower than normal. Though some people displaced received land, a lack of agricultural inputs last year; the need to secure food which competed with cultivation; and poor rainfall left them with little to no harvest. Gifts from relatives and hosts, and working for food have helped only a little and are far from addressing their total food needs. In addition, hosts have the minimum if not insufficient non-food items to loan or give like cooking pots and blankets. As this year progresses, food stocks for the people displaced will continue to be exhausted.

No clear surplus grain areas - the other surplus areas highlighted in Map 1 suffered from very low and sporadic rainfall, which significantly reduced their harvest. In general, all counties in the region do not have sufficient grain to cover their needs up to the next harvest. Even if there was sufficient grain, insecurity and the distance to these markets prevents people from reaching these areas.

Restricted access to formal food and non-food markets - the main formal markets for food and non-food goods are controlled by the GoS. This limits the number of people who can go to these markets. For those who do manage, the prices are exploitative, taking advantage of the desperate situation. The amount of food in the local markets is insufficient for reasons stated above.

Insufficiency of the planned interventions - though NFSWG and other agencies distributed some food and non-food items in 2000 to the people displaced, it was insufficient in scope and degree to cover their emergency needs. The current interventions planned for 2001 does not accommodate for the extreme escalation in fighting compounded by a generally poor harvest across the region. The food security interventions depended mainly on securing local surplus grain and seeds for internal redistribution. For the reasons stated above, this may not be possible, especially to the same degree. Though the projects will be adjusted, they will still not be sufficient to address the extreme rise in people's needs. Regardless, with only a few safe airstrips in the region, insecurity and distance will make it almost impossible to reach the Buram people without putting them at great risk or further displacing them, increasing their destitution.

SUMMARY OF NEEDS AND EXPENDITURE: NRRDO

Immediate needs: Food Items & Transport costs (air)
$948,290.00
Immediate needs: Non-food Items & Transport costs (air)
119,843.00
Short-term needs: Agriculture Inputs & Transport costs
27,690.00
Administration, Personnel & Travel costs @12%
131,498.76
Amount received so far
275,000.00
Total requested
$1,227,322.00
Remaining amount still required
$952,322.00
Name of Appealing NGO - 2 Relief Organization of Fazugli (ROOF)
Implementing Organization ROOF
Contacts:
Executive Director
P.O. Box 27531 Nairobi, Kenya
Tel: c/o 254-2 448540
Fax: " 254-2 442717
e-mail: rooblue@yahoo.com
Sector EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE/FOOD SECURITY
Objective To provide basic assistance to affected population
Project Duration 2 months
Project Location Kurmuk and Gezan counties, south Blue Nile region
Implementing Partners Local community groups, NESI Partners, SRRA
Targeted Constituents 246,101 IDPs
Total Project Budget $378,550
Funds Pledged so far $ 77,000
Funds Sought $378,550
Funds still required $301,550

SUMMARY

The real needs of Southern Blue Nile Region are in the area of:

  • Education
  • Health/water and sanitation
  • Agriculture
  • Socio-economic developments

It was in this context that the Relief Organization of Fazugli (ROOF) was established to respond to the plight of the people of Southern Blue Nile, which has been completely isolated from the rest of the world. The Organization's main goal is for the people of Southern Blue Nile Region to transform their society into that of justice, equality and where positive traditions and values are revived and promoted. The Southern Blue Nile region, is one of the worst war affected parts by the war in the Sudan, is one of the five regions of the SPLM/A controlled New Sudan (the political and administrative name given to the territory under the control of the SPLM/A). With a population of approximately one million people, it lies to the South-eastern corner of Sudan. The soils are predominantly cotton soil, which makes movement is very risky by car during rainy season except by four-wheel drive tractor. The economy is predominantly agricultural and animal husbandry. The various ethnic groups are collectively called the Funj, who in the past established the Funj Kingdom (1504-1821). The war entered the region in 1989 and by 1996 large parts of the region, including its headquarters Kurmuk, became under the control of the SPLM/A. Following the oil discovery and exploitation in the Southern Sudan by the government of Sudan, the war entered its worst phase, with the civilian population being the worst hit. Since March 2000, the government in Khartoum started a ruthless military campaign targeting the civilian population. The GoS adopted a scorched earth policy in the war zones in Southern Sudan, the Nuba Mountains and the Southern Blue Nile. In the Oilfields in Upper Nile region, villages have been destroyed, people killed, and the others fled to other areas with Southern Blue Nile being a major recipient. The dry season GoS offensive beginning October 2000 in Southern Blue Nile involving ground attack and indiscriminative aerial bombardment, followed by SPLA counter attacks, has particularly impinged a terrible impact on the civilian population. Large numbers of people have perished, and the rest displaced both internally and to the neighbouring country of Ethiopia. The displacement unfortunately is a recurring phenomenon, particularly as people continuously run from aerial bombardment and ground attack in search for safe place(s). Between October 2000 and May 2001, about 250,000 people have been internally displaced in and into South Blue Nile as a result of the GoS scorched earth policy in the Oilfields and the dry season GoS offensive involving ground and indiscriminative aerial bombardments on the civilian population. This figure is just an indication of the recurrent displacement phenomenon. Of the total population displaced, about three thousand are the worst affected after loosing everything. They only survive with the support of their extended family members. This fragile situation has necessitated ROOF to appeal to the international community for humanitarian assistance in the form of emergency food relief, seeds, agricultural tools, clothes, household cutleries, and basic education & skills training. While the food will be a temporary relief and coping mechanism, the seeds, agricultural tools, and basic skills provisions will enhance the people get involved in crop production and other economic activities so that they become self reliant in the following year(s).

This emergency relief project will be an integral part of the overall Food Security programme of ROOF. It is within ROOF's food security policy to develop an integrated programme involving crop production, animal husbandry, skills provision, and other income generation activities.

By this appeal (ROOF) is urging the international community for immediate intervention with the emergency relief items covering four months (April-July 2001).

SUMMARY OF NEEDS: ROOF

Food Items
$225,000
Non-food Items
69,900
Agricultural tools & Seeds
44,200
Transport & Logistics
30,600
Personnel costs
8,850
Total required
$378,550
Funds received so far
77,000
Balance still required
301,550
Name of Appealing NGO - 3 HOPE AGENCY FOR RELIEF AND DEVELOPMENT (HARD)
Implementing Organization HARD
Contacts:
Coordinator, HARD
P.O. 61241, Nairobi, Kenya
Tel: 254-2 575915
Fax: 254-2 566012
e-mail: mrda@maf.or.ke
Sector SURVIVAL KITS AND RELIEF FOOD
Objective Basic Assistance to IDPs
Project Duration 6 months
Project Location Wau county, Bahr al Ghazal, New Sudan
Implementing Partners Local community groups, NESI Partners, SRRA
Targeted Constituents 11,326 persons
Total Project Budget $155,000
Funds Pledged so far $155,000
Funds Requested now $0

SUMMARY

Bahr-El-Ghazal region is in constant attack through raids by the GOS Popular Defense Forces (PDFs) and aerial bombings. When the P.D.Fs. raid, homes are burnt down, property is looted, people are abducted especially women and children. Recent fighting between the Government of Sudan (GOS) and SPLM/A forces which started in May and continues to-date around Wau, Aweil and Raga towns has caused a lot of displacement into Wau and Aweil counties. The Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) from Gogrial moved to Wau County and others to Aweil South County and found refuge in Barmayen, Kuajena, Udici and Marial Wau Payams in both Aweil South and Wau Counties. In January and February 2001 these payams were attacked by the P.D.Fs. Homes were burnt down, property looted and food destroyed leaving the people with no homes and no food. The WFP assessment and HARD's own carried in January and February 2001 revealed that a total of 18,500 persons in Wau County will require very urgent assistance in the form of relief food, seeds and agricultural hand tools. Furthermore, due to the prevailing insecurity situation because of both GOS's and SPLM/A heavy presence and expected offences around Wau Town, it is expected that an estimated further 90,000 IDPs and returnees to come to Wau county.

HARD is a Sudanese organization started in 1995 in order to assist the war-affected southern Sudanese people with relief, rehabilitation and development programmes. It helps promote self-reliance initiatives through the provision of long-term programmes. From HARD's Assessments of January and February 2001 a total of 1888 households are in dire need of assistance in Wau and Aweil South counties. A household is taken to be of 6 members. In Baau, Aweil South County, 850 households require assistance. In Wau County at Barurud, 641households need assistance and 397 households need assistance at Acumcum. The present precarious situation has been caused by poor harvest in the year 2000 due to unreliable rain patterns, armyworm, and lack of seeds and tools compounded by raids by the P.D.Fs. This Appeal has two dimensions; non-food items for the affected groups and the provision of agricultural seeds and tools. The main objective of the Emergency Appeal is to assist the most affected households with non-food items in the first place whilst WFP will assist with relief food. Regarding the agricultural component of the Appeal will help at least 15,000 most affected people (particularly, those who have been dependent on wild fruits as their food) to grow their own food thus greatly reducing dependency on relief food and as well relieving relatives and friends who are presently accommodating the IDPs. The remaining contingency in the Appeal will be kept towards the expected flow of more IDPs due to the extremely high insecurity prevalent in the area.

SUMMARY OF REQUESTED FUNDS: HARD

Survival Kits
$37,500.00
Food Items
35,000.00
Non-food Items
7,469.00
Air Transport LOKI/SUDAN/LOKI
24,536.00
Road Transport & Logistics NBI/LOKI
3,300.00
Total required
107,505.00
Administration Cost @ 10%
10,750.00
Project Total cost
118,255.00
Remaining Contingency
US $ $36,745.00
Name of Appealing NGO - 4 SUDAN MEDICAL CARE (SMC)
Implementing Organization SMC
Contacts:
Managing Director
P. O. Box 27721 Nairobi, Kenya
Tel: 254-2 568478/577529
Fax: 254-2 577529
e-mail: sumc@net2000ke.com
Sector EMERGENCY APPEAL/HEALTH
Objective To provide medical assistance urgently needed
Project Duration One Year
Project Location Bor county and Boma Payam, Upper Nile, New Sudan
Implementing Partners Local community groups, NESI Partners, SRRA, OLS
Targeted Constituents 463,000 IDPs, Returnees and local population
Total Project Budget US$ 443,176
Funds Pledged so far
Funds Sought US$ 443,176

SUMMARY

SMC is a Sudanese indigenous NGO with a mandate on emergency health care programme targeting all community groups. It has been providing different health services since 1993 and is currently taking care of populations' primary health in four locations Toposa, Yei, Boma and in Bor respectively. In this Emergency Appeal, SMC is faced with an extremely acute situation. Bor County is known for natural disasters of alternating floods and droughts. However, two floods (Amol) that is Nile floods and rain floods (Abor) are the common ones. The worst disaster that made Bor County vulnerable till today was the 1991 Nuer/GOS invasion of Bor which happened after the unfortunate split in SPLM/A. Children and girls and women were abducted. Thousands were killed. Many fled to Western Equatoria and the Lakes in Bahr-el-Ghazal. The rest fled to Eastern Equatoria. Many IDPs fled to Kenya and Uganda. The worst disaster however is the war. All commercial and health infrastructure have been completely demolished. The county is starting now from the scratch. The present drought has been unique. It started with erratic rains in April which, became less and less in North Bor thus harvest was not possible because there was no planting. As rains were not sufficient, grass the pasture for livestock and wildlife totally failed as well. Communal work e.g. building or reinforcing of dykes against floods, building of schools, health units and embanking roads or tracks will not be possible for the food the communities used to contribute is not possible now. This year the severe drought and other disasters like war and harassment by GOS forces and militia and clan to clan wars have forced Nuer and Murle IDPs to flee to Bor with their livestock to Bor North and South Counties. Whilst in Boma, this year's drought has been exceptional. Bore wells and streams have all dried up, the rains have been very erratic. In addition, an influx of Murle and other IDPs from GOS' areas to Boma has further aggravated this state of affairs.

The health situation in the two Bor counties and Boma is very threatening:

Human health:

The mortality and morbidity rates are very high among the vulnerable groups of children, women and the elderly. No vaccination, no curative services, no relief from disasters natural and man made. Common and rampant diseases include:

- Diarrhea disease are rampant caused by deficient hygienic and sanitary conditions and malnutrition and insecure water.

- Waterborne diseases caused by toich habitation and lack of potable clean water.

- Respiratory diseases or infections caused by lack of covering, shelters and the changing temperatures being too hot by day and very cold by night.

- Large numbers of TB cases, however there is no TB treatment available.

- Malarial strains have become resistant to cholorquine the most available drug. There are no mosquito nets. There is no cash only barter.

- Traumas due to war e.g. injuries and deaths from GOS aerial bombardment, gunshot wounds and landmines.

- STDs are very rampant especially among IDPs coming from the GOS controlled town of Pibor. The alarm is that Boma Pakook is on the borders of Ethiopia and Kenya that are affected by the HIV/AIDs pandemic.

- Due to overcrowding and severe heat there was an outbreak of meningitis, but it was contained after a dozen mortality cases.

Livestock Health

Many animal diseases are rampant caused by lack of animal drugs and vaccines. Animals driven by drought to livestock grazing areas, have come in their thousands with a host of diseases. Thus livestock have become infected with a variety of diseases, sick cattle not grazing as well as a lot of cattle carcasses.

Water and sanitation

The wells and boreholes in Bor County are not enough. Most areas in Bor need bigger rigs. The water reservoirs are this year mostly dry. The influx of Nuer, Murle and other IDPs has compounded the situation. There is urgent need for more wells. Disposal of human waste is another great problem. SMC is making all efforts through Health Education (HE) for the people to adopt pit latrines. Plastic flaps are preferred here than concrete ones due to lack of gravel.

SUMMARY OF FINANCIAL APPEAL 2001 - SMC

NO.
DESCRIPTION
UNITS
UNIT COSTS
USD
TOTAL USD
I.
Personnel & Administration
29
100,000
II.
Veterinary Drugs
60,000
III.
Bore Wells
10
10,000
100,000
IV.
Livestock Vaccines
34,686
V.
Vehicles (2) and Maintenance Cost
75,000
VI.
Equipment
10,000
VII.
PHC & HIV/AIDS Drug Support
33,490
VIII
Transport Cost
30,000
GRAND TOTAL
$443,176
Name of Appealing NGO - 5A JONGLEI ASSOCIATION FOR RELIEF, REHABILITATION, AND DEVELOPMENT (JARRAD)
Implementing Organization JARRAD
Contacts:
The Executive Director
P.O. 27721, Nairobi, Kenya
Tel: 254-2 568478
Fax: 254-2 577529
e-mail: sumc@net2000ke.com
Sector EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE/FOOD SECURITY
Objective Survival Assistance to Returnees & IDPs
Project Duration 2 months
Project Location Bor County, Upper Nile region, New Sudan
Implementing Partners Local community groups, NESI Partners, SRRA, OLS
Targeted Constituents 3,000 persons (500 families)
Total Project Budget $64,436.00
Funds Pledged so far
Funds Sought $64,436.00

SUMMARY

JARRAD is a charitable indigenous NGO registered by SRRA to operate in South Sudan. It was formed by volunteer elders from Bor County to assist in the repatriation, resettlement and rehabilitation of the people of Bor County who are scattered in the displaced camps in Equatoria or elsewhere due to the double tragedy of the current civil war and the political motivated ethnic killings of 1991 in Bor County. JARRAD's primary mandate is to mobilize resources from the indigenous population of Southern and Central Upper Nile and other people of goodwill and to co-ordinate with other international NGOs in administering relief, rehabilitation and development programmes for the war affected population in the area. The current civil war in Sudan, which is in its 18th year, has devastated the entire Southern Sudan resulting into massive displacement of population to Northern Sudan and the neighbouring countries. Bor County was the victim of devastating inter-factional fighting brought by the split in the SPLM/A in 1991. That disaster resulted into many deaths, loss of property, destruction of infrastructure and social services disorder. The survivors of the disaster fled southwards into Eastern Equatoria and Bahr El Ghazal where they settled in camps set up for internally displaced persons. In 1999 USAID sponsored a repatriation needs assessment that revealed an estimated 115,441 IDPs from Bor county were willing to return to their home areas and was only in the year 2000 when NPA/JARRAD through USAID funding repatriated 2,086 IDPs by air from Triple "N" to various locations in Bor county. Another 7,179 self-repatriating IDPs reached Bor County through West Bank during the same year through the assistance of NPA with transport and food en route. The current resident population in Bor is about 198,720 and 30,000 to 40,000 Nuer IDPs. The second phase began in April 2001 and about 12,230 IDPs are expected to be repatriated from the West Bank to Bor County by June 2001. The repatriation of IDPs has posed a lot of challenges to JARRAD, which is a lead agency in the resettlement project. The IDPs have been out for over nine years, there are young people who have been born in the camps, those who were young are now mature and married, some elderly people who fled when they were a bit strong are now aged and weak.

In the year 2000 another internal displacement occurred when GOS militiamen attacked Nuer Lou in North Bor. The displaced Nuers are currently being hosted by Dinkas.

Objectives

  • To assist 200 families of returnees who did not receive life packs.
  • To assist 300 families of Nuer IDPs from North Bor and strengthen grassroots peace of May 2000.


SUMMARY OF PROPOSED BUDGET: JARRAD

Emergency Kits & Life Packs
US 21,950.00
Agricultural and Construction Tools
24,875.00
Personnel Costs
1,200.00
Transport
10,500.00
Administrative Costs 10.1%
5,911.00
Grand Total
$64,436.00
Name of Appealing NGO - 5B JONGLEI ASSOCIATION FOR RELIEF, REHABILITATION, AND DEVELOPMENT (JARRAD)
Implementing Organization JARRAD
Contacts:
The Executive Director
P.O. 27721, Nairobi, Kenya
Tel: 254-2 568478
Fax: 254-2 577529
e-mail: sumc@net2000ke.com
Sector SUPPORT FOR 10 PRIMARY SCHOOLS
Objective Survival Assistance to children of Returnees
Project Duration 9 months
Project Location Bor County, Upper Nile region, New Sudan
Implementing Partners Local community groups, NESI Partners, SRRA, OLS
Targeted Constituents 900 pupils
Total Project Budget $64,102
Funds Pledged so far
Funds Sought $64,102

SUMMARY

There has never been any stable learning in any part of Southern Sudan since the war started in 1983. The challenge is therefore for the people in Bor County with the support from humanitarian and aid agencies and individuals of good will to mobilize resources to establish schools for the masses of children in the county. It is worth mentioning that the community has highlighted and emphasized this vital problem of education in Bor in a workshop held in Panyagor in which the workshop participants who included among others, women association representatives and community leaders made an emphatic appeal to donor aid agencies to intervene and to urgently provide basic education in the county. Given the large number of school age children languishing without education in the county they had appealed for establishing one model boarding school from primary 4 to 8 in each of the eight payams in the county. This pathetic state of primary education in the county was confirmed recently by the findings of JARRAD assessed the primary education needs of the area. It is this need that has promoted JARRAD and donor agencies to intervene and support ten primary schools in the county for a period of three years after which the local community is expected to take full responsibility in supporting teachers and provision of other services to the schools. The amount required for this project is US$ 104,803 for the year 2001. In this particular case of Bor County whereby there are no organized schools the children of the returnees re-cycle back to the boarders in Equatoria or to Kenya and Uganda to attend to better organized schools thereby creating another emergency situation. To stop this vicious circle, there is an urgent need to consider education as an emergency situation that requires the intervention of NGOs and UN agencies to support the establishment of schools in Bor county, or any other area in the New Sudan that has been similarly affected.

Goal

"Give access to basic education to a large number of the children in the county and to work to eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary by encouraging greater enrolment by female children."

Immediate Objectives

  • Establish ten primary schools with 900 pupils, in 18 streams.
  • Provision of school and teaching material.
  • Provide one meal per for school children and teachers.
  • Update the qualification and teaching ability of teachers through short term and in-service teacher training.
  • Initiate schools, garden programs to instill self-reliance in the children and to improve food security.
  • To provide teachers with some incentives (cash or material) to motivate them.


Long-term Objectives

  • Establish additional 16 primary schools, two in each of the eight payams in the county.
  • Establish two secondary schools.
  • Upgrade teacher training within the framework of sustainable human development.
  • Initiate local resource centres providing wide range of appropriate technologies and techniques, which could with modest support, enter into expanded production of basic needs.


Activities

  • Schools were opened in May 2001.
  • JARRAD has organized the community groups as part of local contribution. The community members will cut poles, grass and sticks. WFP has approved food-for-work for construction.
  • Teachers recruited in the month of March 2001. The recruitment was done locally to ensure that the local resources available are properly used. JARRAD ensured the recruitment of experienced teachers, some included those who were never trained but with sufficient experience.
  • Registration of pupils will start as soon as the teachers are recruited.
  • UNICEF delivered writing and reading materials in January 2001. JARRAD still needs to look for more, as those were not sufficient in quantity.
  • Untrained teachers will be attending in-service courses during the school holidays. This will continue for a period of 4 years for each group to ensure that they receive proper training.


JARRAD
PROPOSED SUMMARY BUDGET FOR TEN SCHOOLS FOR THE YEAR 2001

ITEMS
DESCRIPTION
TOTAL $
Construction and Materials & Fittings
3,000.00
Uniforms
11,244.00
Sports
5,858.00
Personnel Costs
Teachers etc.
29,000.00
Administrative Costs
15,000.00
Total Budget
$64,102.00
Name of Appealing NGO - 6 WIDOWS, ORPHANS AND THE DISABLED ASSOCIATION OF NEW SUDAN (WODRANS)
Implementing Organization WODRANS
Contacts:
The Executive Director
P.O. Box 27721 Nairobi, Kenya
Tel. 254-2 577530
Fax: 254-2 575561
e-mail: wodrans@net2000.ke.com
Sector EMERGENCY/FOOD SECURITY
Objective To provide basic survival needs
Project Duration One Year
Project Location Bor North and South Counties
Implementing Partners Local community groups, NESI Partners, SRRA,OLS
Targeted Constituents 500 families (3000 persons approx.)
Total Project Budget $172,230.00
Funds Pledged so far
Funds Sought $172,230.00

SUMMARY

The most appalling effect and impact of the civil war in the Sudan are seen in its lost capacity and subsequent institutional collapse. Latest estimates on the numbers of widows, orphans and disabled have been put at over 300,000. However, this figure could be much higher. The widows face great difficulty not only looking after the children without the support of their husbands, but also in essential practical areas like building and erecting shelters for themselves. The orphaned children face a bleak future. Most of them have no hope of ever finding their relatives, and therefore lack of access to any form of educational opportunities that may be available. The disabled are perhaps the most vulnerable, unable to fend for themselves, no longer seen as being able to provide and care for his/her family and unable to access rehabilitative care. They are not only demobilised but also demoralised. Besides the casualties resulting from fighting, the cruelty of the far reaching land mines has taken away many limbs and is not discriminative towards those in combat or innocent civilians.

Widows, Orphans and Disabled Rehabilitation Association of the New Sudan (WODRANS), is a Sudanese non-governmental organisation founded in October 1995, which is non-political, non-partisan and non-profit making. It addresses the needs of widows, orphans and disabled, through a programme which concentrates on rehabilitation, development, capacity building and social re-integration, to improve the quality of their lives, and enable them to take their full part in the evolution of the New Sudan. WODRANS, in its efforts to help local communities, particularly the least advantaged and most vulnerable (widows, the disabled and orphans) has already in place a number of self-reliance initiatives. WODRANS is therefore overseeing project activities including, cooperative shops, grinding mills, adult literacy, micro-enterprise training, tie & die and tailoring training, handicrafts works and other activities such as local community self-reliance and income-generating activities. It is currently undertaking the establishment of an orphans' academy soon to be launched.

There are over 250,000 returnees who were repatriated back to Bor North and South counties. Due to insecurity and other war-related factors, these repatriated persons have been internally displaced for some years. Given these conditions, they returned back home with nothing. Upon their arrival home, they were, hosted, by the already over-burdened local population. Thus, the situation has become extremely overwhelming for all. WODRANS envisages to provide basic survival kits and to ensure self-reliance it will as well provide food security materials such as agricultural tools, seeds and fishing equipment to 500 families headed by the disabled and widows. Upper Nile is an area with plenty of water and fish. However, due to many factors related to the war mainly, the population of this area lacks these basic items.

Objectives

Over a period of one year, WODRANS intends to support 500 families from the returnees population by carrying-out two main projects; an emergency project through the provision of basic survival kits and food security programme as follows:

a. Short-term: Emergency Assistance: 3-months Project

  • Provision of basic survival kits for up to 500 families
  • Lift the overburdened off the local population (non-returnees)
  • Provide supervisors for take charge and supervise this Project equitably and efficiently.


b. Long-term: Food Security: One-year Project

i. Agricultural Programme

  • Provision of agricultural tools and seeds for up to 500 families
  • Hire an agriculturist and two trainers
  • Creation of self-reliance awareness through the production of food locally.

ii. Fishing Programme
  • Provision of fishing equipment such as hooks, nets and nails etc. for up to 500 families
  • Hire supervisors to distribute the equipment and manage the project
  • Creation of self-sufficiency through self-reliance activities.


Activities & Strategies

a. Emergency Project:

Given the fact that this is absolutely urgent, WODRANS will embark on this project as soon as it receives the necessary funds. WODRANS has already identified the families and necessary staff to carryout the activity. It will immediately start with the implementation. It is a 3-months project from receipt of funds. Selection is based on needs only, orphans, widows and the disabled are given special preferences. Upon completion of the project, a complete report, including activity and financial, will be given to the donor(s).

b. Food Security Programme (Agriculture and Fishing Programmes):

The project duration is one year from receipt of funds. It has two components; Agricultural and fishing projects. WODRANS has already identified the constituents who are 500 families selected from the returnees, special preference to orphans, widows and the disabled. Each family will be provided with a certain number of agricultural and fishing equipment to secure locally -produced food. An agriculturist consultant and assistants will train the families on basic farming methodologies and food security matters.

BUDGET SUMMARY: WODRANS

1
EQUIPMENT SUPPLIES (500 FAMILIES)
63,715.00
2
NON-FOOD ITEMS
30,700.00
3
TRANSPORT AND LOGISTICS COSTS
41,850.00
4
PERSONNEL COSTS
$13,500.00
PROJECT COSTS
$149,765.00
ADM OVERHEAD
22,465.00
TOTAL FUNDS REQUIRED
172,230.00

Annex I

Brief Background about the Civil wars in Sudan

Sudan has been experiencing civil wars for over 30 years of Sudan's 45 years of independence. The present war which began in 1983, has had the most devastating effects and impacts in terms of its toll on lives, the economy and general development of the Sudan in general and the New Sudan (also known as south Sudan) in particular. The most appalling effect and impact of the civil war in the Sudan are seen in its lost capacity and subsequent institutional collapse.

The marginalised "New Sudan" refers to the five regions currently under the administration of the Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A). The five regions, known as New Sudan, which have endured two civil wars, include Bahr al Ghazal, Equatoria, Upper Nile, South Kordofan and South Blue Nile. The regions have a population of approximately eight to ten million, which is historically comprised of the original inhabitants of the Sudan. Although New Sudan is endowed with vast natural resources, including fertile, well-watered agricultural land and mineral deposits, the policies of centralised Arab-Islamic governments have consistently discriminated against southerners. This has resulted in inequitable and unfair distribution of the benefits accruing from this vast wealth. The people of New Sudan have never been allowed to enjoy equal power sharing, nor have they participated in any decision and policy-making roles in the centralised Sudanese government system. The predominantly Muslim governments in Sudan have perpetuated discrimination of southerners on the basis of religion, ethnicity, colour and gender.

Annex II

NESI-Network: A Profile

New Sudanese Indigenous NGOs, abbreviated, as NESI-Network is an umbrella body formed of nine local Sudanese organizations, 2SWVP, NRRDO, NSWF, WODRANS, SMC, MRDA, HARD, JARRAD and ROOF. The Nine NESI-Partners, work under extreme difficult conditions. The areas of New Sudan lack any form of development. Discriminatory policies by central-based governments in Khartoum left and continue to leave the New Sudan with hardly any development, and marginalisation of people to 2nd class citizenship status in their own country. Tireless efforts exerted by the population of New Sudan in order to peacefully negotiate issues regarding equal citizenship, fair and equitable distribution of natural resources and wealth and equal power-sharing usually fell in deaf ears. The history of Sudan is full of discontent and peaceful struggle by the marginalised people for equality on all bases. This led to two consecutive civil wars; one is currently going on.

These local organizations were formed as a result of the vacuum felt by the lack of systems achieving long-lasting and sustainable programmes. Since 1989 much of humanitarian organizations concentrated on relief intervention aspects with very little scope for rehabilitation and development. Furthermore, New Sudan population continues to suffer from gross human rights violations, aerial bombardment, slavery and abductions. Equally important, gender based discrimination continues to block women from advancement and hence, communities are growing poorer. Thus, NESI-Network Partners have realized greatly that they need to work together for better and more effective results. Each of NESI's Partners works in one of the five regions of New Sudan. They are present and are witnessing the daily changes. They have very limited resources, and hence, coming together would make them stronger, learn from each other, stand as a united block in monitoring human rights abuses among others.

NESI Contacts:

Website: www.nesinetwork.org
E-mail: nesinet@todays.co.ke

Annex III

NOVIB address:

Netherlands Organization for International Development Cooperation
Mauritskade 9, P.O. Box 30919, 2500 GX The Hague, The Netherlands.

Footnotes:

1 A comprehensive assessment of needs for all the 40,000 IDPs is available

2 SWVP: Sudanese Women Voice for Peace, NRRDO: Nuba Relief, Rehabilitation and Development Organisation, NSWF: New Sudan Women Federation, WODRANS: Widows, Orphans and the Disabled Association of New Sudan, SMC: Sudan Medical Care, MRDA: Mundri Relief and Development Association, HARD: Hope Agency for Relief and Development, JARRAD: Jonglei Association for Relief, Rehabilitation, and Development, ROOF: Relief Organisation of Fazugli.