Impact of the 2013 Floods on the Incidence of Malaria in Almanagil Locality, Gezira State, Sudan

Report
from Public Library of Science
Published on 08 Oct 2018 View Original

Yasir Elfatih Abdelrahim Elsanousim, Abbas Suleiman Elmahi, Irene Pereira, Michel Debacker

ABSTRACT

Background: Heavy rain hit Sudan in August 2013 with subsequent flash floods in different parts of the country. This study investigated the impact of the flooding on incidence of malaria in Almanagil Locality in central Sudan.

Methods: This observational retrospective study compared malaria data sets during rainfall seasons in the Almanagil Locality in the year of flooding (2013) with those of corresponding rainfall seasons of previous two non-flood years (2011 and 2012).

Results: A marked increase of new malaria cases and incidence rate was observed in the 13 sentinel malaria notification sites in the locality (IR increased from 6.09 per 100,000 person­days in 2011 [95 % CI: 5.93-6.26] and 6.48 in 2012 [95 % CI: 6.31-6.65] to 8.24 in 2013 [95 % CI: 8.05-8.43] ; P< 0.0001), with a peaking of the incidence rate in the under-5-years age group (IR for this age group jumped from 9.80 per 100,000 person­days in 2011 [95 % CI: 9.29­10.32] and 10.00 in 2012 [95 % CI: 9.52­10.49] to 15.02 in 2013 [95 % CI: 14.41­15.64]). A noticeable increase in the slide positivity rate (P< 0.0001) was observed in the 12-week period of 2013 (SPR = 20.86% [95 % CI: 20.40 ­21.32%]) compared with the same periods in 2011 (SPR = 8.72% [95 % CI: 8.36 ­9.08%]) and 2012 (SPR = 12.62% [95 % CI: 12.24 ­13.01%]), with a more marked rise of the SPR in the under-5-year age group. Hospital data showed increase in both the inpatient and outpatient incidence proportions in the study period of 2013 compared to those of the years 2011 and 2012. Hospital OPD incidence proportion in 2013 was 19.7% (95% CI: 19.24­20.18%) compared to 12.85% (95% CI: 12.48­13.23%) in 2011, and 12.16% (95% CI: 11.82­12.51%) in 2012. The < 5 year old groups were responsible for the overall rise in the proportion of malaria cases in 2013 , particularly the < 1 year old group which more than doubled in the 2013 period compared to both 2011 and 2012 periods (Age­specific proportion of the outpatient malaria cases of the < 1 year old group in 2013 was19.5% [95% CI: 18.5­20.6%] compared to 7.7% [95% CI: 6.9­8.6%] in 2011 and 8.1% [95% CI: 7.3­8.9%] in 2012. Incidence proportion of severe malaria cases (inpatients) increased to 22.5 % (95 % CI: 21.5 to 23.6 %) in the study period of 2013 compared to 19.8 % (95 % CI: 18.6 to 21.0 %) in 2011 and 18.4 % (95 % CI: 17.4 to 19.5) in 2012. The increase in the proportion of severe malaria cases was mainly due to a higher proportion of children < 5 years of age and especially to a higher proportion of children < 1 year of age.

Conclusion: The study revealed a significant increase in the incidence rate of malaria in Almanagil Locality following the flash flood of August 2013. The flooding had the highest impact on the malaria incidence of the under-5-years age group, and particularly of the under-1-year age group.